author = "Makarieva, Anastassia M. and Gorshokov, Victor G. and Nefiodov, 
                         Andrei V. and Chikunov, Alexander V. and Sheil, Douglas and Nobre, 
                         Antonio Donato and Li, Bai-Lian",
          affiliation = "{Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute} and {Petersburg Nuclear 
                         Physics Institute} and {Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute} and 
                         {Institute of World Ideas} and {Norwegian University of Life 
                         Sciences} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {University of California}",
                title = "Fuel for cyclones: the water vapor budget of a hurricane as 
                         dependent on its movement",
              journal = "Atmospheric Research",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "193",
                pages = "216--230",
                month = "Sept.",
             keywords = "Condensation, Precipitation, Tropical cyclones.",
             abstract = "Despite the dangers associated with tropical cyclones and their 
                         rainfall, the origin of the moisture in these storms, which 
                         include destructive hurricanes and typhoons, remains surprisingly 
                         uncertain. Existing studies have focused on the region 40400 km 
                         from a cyclone's center. It is known that the rainfall within this 
                         area cannot be explained by local processes alone but requires 
                         imported moisture. Nonetheless, the dynamics of this imported 
                         moisture appears unknown. Here, considering a region up to three 
                         thousand kilometers from cyclone center, we analyze precipitation, 
                         atmospheric moisture and movement velocities for severe tropical 
                         cyclones North Atlantic hurricanes. Our findings indicate that 
                         even over such large areas a hurricane's rainfall cannot be 
                         accounted for by concurrent evaporation. We propose instead that a 
                         hurricane consumes pre-existing atmospheric water vapor as it 
                         moves. The propagation velocity of the cyclone, i.e. the 
                         difference between its movement velocity and the mean velocity of 
                         the surrounding air (steering flow), determines the water vapor 
                         budget. Water vapor available to the hurricane through its 
                         movement makes the hurricane self-sufficient at about 700 km from 
                         the hurricane center obviating the need to concentrate moisture 
                         from greater distances. Such hurricanes leave a dry wake, whereby 
                         rainfall is suppressed by up to 40% compared to the local 
                         long-term mean. The inner radius of this dry footprint 
                         approximately coincides with the hurricane's radius of water 
                         self-sufficiency. We discuss how Carnot efficiency considerations 
                         do not constrain the power of such open systems. Our findings 
                         emphasize the incompletely understood role and importance of 
                         atmospheric moisture stocks and dynamics in the behavior of severe 
                         tropical cyclones.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.04.006",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.04.006",
                 issn = "0169-8095",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "makarieva_fuel.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "10 abr. 2021"