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@Article{AlmeidaPacBarRosRol:2017:ExFlIn,
               author = "Almeida, Rafael M. and Pacheco, Felipe Siqueira and Barros, Nathan 
                         and Rosi, Emma and Roland, F{\'a}bio",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         de Juiz de Fora (UFJF)} and {Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora 
                         (UFJF)} and {Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF)}",
                title = "Extreme floods increase CO2 outgassing from a large Amazonian 
                         river",
              journal = "Limnology and Oceanography",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "62",
               number = "3",
                pages = "989--999",
                month = "May",
             abstract = "Large Amazonian rivers are characteristically subject to seasonal 
                         floods. We examine how inundation extent affects the partial 
                         pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and CO2 outgassing in the 
                         Madeira River, a large tributary to the Amazon River. We show data 
                         from nine field campaigns performed between 2009 and 2011, 
                         complemented with data from one additional campaign in April 2014 
                         that is representative of the largest flood on record. Both the 
                         pCO2 (range, 8359694 \μatm) and CO2 outgassing (range, 
                         64112,253 mg C m\−2 d\−1) had large seasonal 
                         variability (with peaks during high water), and fit exponential 
                         relationships with water level. CO2 outgassing per unit area in 
                         2014 was 50% higher than the other highest rate in our dataset. 
                         Reconstruction of CO2 fluxes since 1968 indicates that 
                         extreme-flood years outgas 20% more CO2 per unit area than years 
                         without reported occurrence of extreme floods. Our findings 
                         indicate a positive feedback between climate change, extreme 
                         flooding, and CO2 outgassing from river water.",
                  doi = "10.1002/lno.10480",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lno.10480",
                 issn = "0024-3590",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "almeida_extreme.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"
}


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