author = "Amaral, Simone Sim{\~o}es and Costa, Maria Ang{\'e}lica Martins 
                         and Carvalho J{\'u}nior, Jo{\~a}o Andrade de and Soares Neto, 
                         Tur{\'{\i}}bio Gomes and Santos, Jos{\'e} Carlos dos and 
                         Cortez, Ely Vieira and Pinheiro, Cleverson",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista 
                         (UNESP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Instituto 
                         Federal de Educa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, Ci{\^e}ncia e Tecnologia de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (IFSP)",
                title = "Study of tropical forest residue combustion: chemical 
                         characterization and emissions",
                 year = "2017",
         organization = "Workshop on Bioenergy Renewable Energy and Green Building, 3.",
             keywords = "Biomass Combustion, Biofuel, Emission Factor, Chemical 
                         Characterization, Gas Emission, PM2.5 Emission, Forest Residue, 
                         Amazon Biomass.",
             abstract = "Renewable energy sources have been recommended as substitute for 
                         fossil fuels, due to climate change. Among such renewable sources 
                         are the biomass from forest and agricultural residues, for 
                         example. In tropical forest areas, such as in the Amazon region, 
                         there is large amount of dead biomass above the ground, which 
                         supports the occurrence and spread of forest fires. In an attempt 
                         to find solutions for the reduction of forest fires, the residue 
                         of the rainforest was studied as a fuel for use in combustion 
                         process. Approximately 2 kg of Amazon biomass was burned in 
                         laboratory. Biomass was characterized chemical and energetically. 
                         Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate matter 
                         smaller than 2.5 Ám (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming and 
                         smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate and modified 
                         combustion efficiency were studied. A continuous analyzer was used 
                         to quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 was used to sample 
                         PM2.5. Higher heating value obtained for Amazon biomass was 16.59 
                         ▒ 0.04 MJ kg-1 . Average consumption was 81.54 ▒ 4.31% and average 
                         duration was 27.40 ▒ 2.88 min. Average emissions factors and their 
                         respective deviations in grams of gas per kilogram of dry biomass 
                         burnt were 1581 ▒ 29 for CO2, 48.61 ▒ 6.74 for CO, 2.92 ▒ 0.18 for 
                         NOx, and 3.18 ▒ 1.35 for PM2.5. Tropical forest biomass presented 
                         emission similar to other biomass when submitted to combustion. 
                         However, other aspects of this material must be evaluated for use 
                         as a fuel in combustion process.",
  conference-location = "Guaratinguet{\'a}, SP",
      conference-year = "30 mar.",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"