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@MastersThesis{Zea:2018:SaMuMo,
               author = "Zea, Lina Esther Rivelli",
                title = "Thunderstorms life cycle observation: satellite multi-channel 
                         model for warning system",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2018",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2017-08-03",
             keywords = "nowcasting, thunderstorms, eletrification, satellite, 
                         multi-channel, nowcasting, tempestades, eletrifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         sat{\'e}lite, multicanais.",
             abstract = "The principal objective of this research is to identify typical 
                         cloud-top signatures of incipient thunderstorms and its early 
                         electrification process in satellite multi-channel observations as 
                         means of building a conceptual model of thunderstorm detection 
                         based on brightness temperature and electrification life cycle 
                         association. The methods toward the principal objective analyzed 
                         the data set of CHUVA-Vale field campaign from 01 November 2011 to 
                         31 March 2012, including multi-channel observations from the 
                         SEVIRI infrared fields, a radar-lightning co-located data set and 
                         a sample of 40 compact isolated thunderstorms. The sequence for 
                         each infrared field comprises the parallax correction in satellite 
                         observations; the co-location of satellite and radar-lightning 
                         data; the selection of an evaluation area for thunderstorm 
                         detection, and the construction of brightness temperature relative 
                         cumulative-frequency distributions along with respective 
                         thresholds analysis and validation. Consequently, 4 thunderstorm 
                         predictors used in tandem to detect the largest differentiation 
                         among the lightning time steps and significant cumulus cloud and 
                         electrification intensification, resulted throughout parameters in 
                         corresponding brightness temperature histograms whose thresholds 
                         are as follows: IF1 or Predictor 1= Ch05-Ch06: (6.2 \− 7.3) 
                         \$\mu\$m: Tbd \$\geq\$ \−14.0 K; IF2 or Predictor 2= 
                         10.8 \$\mu\$m: Tb \$\leq\$ +263.0 K, IF3 or Predictor 3= 
                         (6.2 \− 10.8) \$\mu\$m: Tbd \$\geq\$ \−14.0 K 
                         and IF4 or Predictor 4= 
                         (8.7\−10.8)\−(10.8\−12.0) \$\mu\$m: Tbd 
                         \$\geq\$ 0 K. Additionally, an independent 2-day validation 
                         test indicated that the conceptual model has a higher probability 
                         of lightning detection for the interval of index sums from 16 to 
                         12 because of the higher POD and lower FAR. Also the results 
                         indicated that the conceptual model has a lower probability of 
                         lightning detection for the interval of index sums from 8 to 4 
                         because of the lower POD and higher FAR. This representative 
                         behavior of the thunderstorm electrification life cycle in 
                         geostationary satellite multi-channel observations will allow a 
                         potential development of nowcasting tools at the boundary of 
                         subtropical regions using data from the Meteosat Second Generation 
                         Satellite, and with the perspective to use in the near future, the 
                         data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R 
                         and the imminent Meteosat Third Generation Satellite. RESUMO: O 
                         objetivo principal desta pesquisa {\'e} identificar um conjunto 
                         de assinaturas t{\'{\i}}picas do topo das nuvens que permitam 
                         prever o processo de eletrifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o quando as nuvens se 
                         transformam em tempestades. Atrav{\'e}s das 
                         combina{\c{c}}{\~o}es de canais dos imageadores de 
                         sat{\'e}lites geoestacion{\'a}rios este trabalho visa construir 
                         um modelo conceitual de detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o de in{\'{\i}}cio 
                         dos processos de eletrifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o de tempestades 
                         utilizando a tend{\^e}ncia dos histogramas de temperatura de 
                         brilho (ou diferen{\c{c}}a de canais). Para 
                         constru{\c{c}}{\~a}o deste modelo conceitual foram utilizadas 
                         observa{\c{c}}{\~o}es em diferentes canais infravermelhos 
                         co-localizados com observa{\c{c}}{\~o}es de radar 
                         polarim{\'e}trico banda X e de medidas do LMA (Lightning Mapping 
                         Array) que consiste de fontes emitidas pelos rel{\^a}mpagos em 
                         Very Higher Frequency. Foram selecionadas 40 tempestades compactas 
                         durante a campanha CHUVA-Vale para a elabora{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         modelo conceitual e posteriormente os resultados foram testados em 
                         casos independentes. A sequ{\^e}ncia dos procedimentos 
                         metodol{\'o}gicos para campo de interesse compreende a 
                         corre{\c{c}}{\~a}o da paralaxe nas observa{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         sat{\'e}lite; a co-localiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o com os dados de radar 
                         e descargas el{\'e}tricas; a sele{\c{c}}{\~a}o de uma {\'a}rea 
                         de avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o para detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o das tempestades 
                         e a constru{\c{c}}{\~a}o de distribui{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         frequ{\^e}ncia relativa-cumulativa de temperatura de brilho (ou 
                         diferen{\c{c}}as) e a defini{\c{c}}{\~a}o de limiares para a 
                         constru{\c{c}}{\~a}o das frequ{\^e}ncias cumuladas. Quatro 
                         canais ou diferen{\c{c}}a de canais foram selecionados para 
                         detectar o processo de eletrifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o da nuvem. Os 
                         seguintes preditores foram utilizados: IF1 or Predictor 1= (6.2 
                         \− 7.3) \$\mu\$m: Tbd \$\geq\$\−14.0 K; IF2 or 
                         Predictor 2= 10.8 \$\mu\$m: Tb \$\leq\$+223.0 K, IF3 or 
                         Predictor 3= (6.2 \− 10.8) \$\mu\$m: Tbd 
                         \$\geq\$\−14.0 K and IF4 or Predictor 4= (8.7 \− 
                         10.8) \− (10.8 \− 12.0) \$\mu\$m: Tbd \$\geq\$ 
                         0 K. Esse conjunto de preditores foi utilizado em 
                         fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o das propriedades que esses canais t{\^e}m para 
                         descrever os processos microf{\'{\i}}sicos das nuvens. Ap{\'o}s 
                         a defini{\c{c}}{\~a}o do modelo, um teste de 
                         valida{\c{c}}{\~a}o independente de 2 dias permitiu definir as 
                         incertezas do modelo conceitual. O emprego dos campos selecionados 
                         quando empregados juntos melhoram significativamente a 
                         previsibilidade do processo de eletrifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o da nuvem. 
                         Este comportamento representativo do ciclo de vida da 
                         eletrifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o das tempestades atrav{\'e}s de 
                         combina{\c{c}}{\~o}es de canais de sat{\'e}lite 
                         geoestacion{\'a}rio permitir{\'a} o desenvolvimento de 
                         ferramentas de previs{\~a}o a curt{\'{\i}}ssimo prazo nas 
                         regi{\~o}es tropicais e subtropicais usando dados do Meteosat 
                         Second Generation e, em breve, do Geostationary Operational 
                         Environmental Satellite-R e do futuro Meteosat Third Generation 
                         Satellite.",
            committee = "Arav{\'e}quia, Jos{\'e} Antonio (presidente) and Machado, Luiz 
                         Augusto Toledo (orientador) and Ceballos, Juan Carlos and Mattos, 
                         Enrique Viera and Nesbitt, Stephen William",
         englishtitle = "Observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o do ciclo de vida de 
                         electrica{\c{c}}{\~a}o das tempestades: aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         multicanais para modelo conceitual de nowcasting",
             language = "en",
                pages = "127",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3P7RM3E",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3P7RM3E",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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