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@Article{WitteTSFPCNJSMOJS:2017:1.MeEv,
               author = "Witte, Jacquelyn C. and Thompson, Anne M. and Smit, Herman G. J. 
                         and Fujiwara, Masatomo and Posny, Fran{\c{c}}oise and Coetzee, 
                         Gert J. R. and Northam, Edward T. and Johnson, Bryan J. and 
                         Sterling, Chance W. and Mohamad, Maznorizan and Ogini, Shin-Ya and 
                         Jordan, Allen and Silva, Francisco Raimundo da",
          affiliation = "{Science Systems and Applications Inc.} and {NASA/Goddard Space 
                         Flight Center} and 3 Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the 
                         Geosphere: Troposphere, Research Centre Juelich and {Hokkaido 
                         University} and {University of La R{\'e}union Island} and {South 
                         African Weather Service} and {Science Systems and Applications 
                         Inc.} and Global Monitoring Division, NOAA and Global Monitoring 
                         Division, NOAA and {Malaysian Meteorological Department} and 
                         {Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology} and Global 
                         Monitoring Division, NOAA and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "First reprocessing of Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes 
                         (SHADOZ) profile records (19982015): 1. Methodology and 
                         evaluation",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "122",
               number = "12",
                pages = "6611--6636",
                month = "June",
             abstract = "Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde measurements are an 
                         important source of highly resolved vertical profiles of ozone 
                         (O-3) with long-term data records for deriving O-3 trends, model 
                         development, satellite validation, and air quality studies. 
                         Ozonesonde stations employ a range of operational and data 
                         processing procedures, metadata reporting, and instrument changes 
                         that have resulted in inhomogeneities within individual station 
                         data records. A major milestone is the first reprocessing of seven 
                         Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) station 
                         ozonesonde records to account for errors and biases in 
                         operating/processing procedures. Ascension Island, Hanoi, Irene, 
                         Kuala Lumpur, La Reunion, Natal, and Watukosek station records all 
                         show an overall increase in O-3 after reprocessing. Watukosek 
                         shows the largest increase of 9.02.1 Dobson Units (DU) in total 
                         column O-3; Irene and Hanoi show a 5.52.5 DU increase, while 
                         remaining sites show statistically insignificant enhancements. 
                         Negligible to modest O-3 enhancements are observed after 
                         reprocessing in the troposphere (up to 8%) and stratosphere (up to 
                         6%), except at La Reunion for which the application of background 
                         currents reduces tropospheric O-3 (-2.11.3 DU). Inhomogeneities 
                         due to ozonesonde/solution-type changes at Ascension, Natal, and 
                         La Reunion are resolved with the application of transfer 
                         functions. Comparisons with EP-TOMS, Aura's Ozone Monitoring 
                         Instrument and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite O-3 
                         overpasses show an overall improvement in agreement after 
                         reprocessing. Most reprocessed data sets show a significant 
                         reduction in biases with MLS at the ozone maximum region 
                         (50-10hPa). Changes in radiosonde/ozonesonde system and 
                         nonstandard solution types can account for remaining discrepancies 
                         observed at several sites when compared to satellites. Plain 
                         Language Summary Ozonesondes are point-source balloon-borne 
                         instruments that measure profiles of ozone, pressure, temperature, 
                         and relative humidity from the surface up to 10hPa (similar to 30 
                         km). Long-term ozonesonde data records are relied upon to validate 
                         model output and satellite retrievals of ozone, as well as 
                         validate their trend calculations. Thus, it is important to have 
                         confidence in the quality and accuracy of sonde observations. One 
                         way to ensure high quality in the ozonesonde measurement system is 
                         to follow the consensus-based operating procedures and 
                         reprocessing guidelines established by ozonesonde experts from 
                         around the world. These procedures and guidelines have been 
                         adopted by the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) 
                         network. SHADOZ is a NASA/GSFC project in close collaboration with 
                         NOAA and other international partners to archive tropical and 
                         sub-tropical ozonesonde data. Since the network started in 1998, 
                         14 stations located north and south of the tropics have archived 
                         over 6000 profiles. Like many long-term observational networks, 
                         SHADOZ is characterized by heterogeneous operating procedures, 
                         ozonesonde systems, and postprocessing software that impact 
                         validation and trend derivation assessments. Reprocessing the 
                         SHADOZ ozonesonde data records has led to homogenized data sets 
                         that now allow for meaningful comparisons across the network.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016JD026403",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JD026403",
                 issn = "2169-8996 and 2169-897X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "witte_first.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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