author = "Maeda, Eduardo Eiji and Ma, Xuanlong and Wagner, Fabien Hubert and 
                         Kim, Hyungjun and Oki, Taikan and Eamus, Derek and Huete, 
          affiliation = "{University of Helsinki} and {University of Technology Sydney} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {The 
                         University of Tokyo} and {The University of Tokyo} and {University 
                         of Technology Sydney} and {University of Technology Sydney}",
                title = "Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin",
              journal = "Earth System Dynamics",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "8",
               number = "2",
                pages = "439--454",
                month = "June",
             abstract = "Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of 
                         regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem 
                         functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of 
                         ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental 
                         drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a 
                         water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and 
                         their relationships with water and energy drivers over five 
                         sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements 
                         of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial 
                         water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the 
                         characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in 
                         timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the 
                         northern Rio Negro basin ( \∼ 1497 mm year\−1 ) and 
                         the lowest values in the Solim{\~o}es River basin (\∼ 986 
                         mm year\−1 ). For the first time in a basin-scale study, 
                         using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary 
                         across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale 
                         eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET 
                         are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as 
                         neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. 
                         In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root 
                         water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, 
                         when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We 
                         demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness 
                         across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in 
                         ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in 
                         seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with 
                         estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither 
                         of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation 
                         of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.",
                  doi = "10.5194/esd-8-439-2017",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/esd-8-439-2017",
                 issn = "2190-4979",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "maeda_evapotranspiration.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"