author = "Pereira, Gabriel and Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira and Moraes, 
                         Elisabete Caria and Chiquetto, J{\'u}lio Barboza and Cardozo, 
                         Francielle da Silva",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o Jo{\~a}o Del Rei (UFSJ)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o Jo{\~a}o Del Rei 
                title = "Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface 
                         characteristics in South America",
              journal = "Theoretical and Applied Climatology",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "129",
               number = "1/2",
                pages = "521--538",
                month = "July",
             abstract = "Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and 
                         biological properties are important variables in the numerical 
                         modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of 
                         this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land 
                         use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed 
                         using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as 
                         well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the 
                         Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the 
                         update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used 
                         by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, 
                         increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to 
                         observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p < 0.05, 
                         Student's t test). Correspondingly, the simulations performed with 
                         adjustments in maximum fractional vegetation cover, in visible and 
                         shortwave infrared reflectance, and in the leaf area index, showed 
                         a good agreement for maximum and minimum temperature, with values 
                         closer to observed data. The changes in physical parameters and 
                         land use updating in BATS/RegCM4 reduced overestimation of 
                         simulated precipitation from 19 to 7 % (significant at p < 0.05, 
                         Student's t test). Regarding evapotranspiration and precipitation, 
                         the most significant differences due to land use updating were 
                         located (1) in the Amazon deforestation arc; (2) around the 
                         Brazil-Bolivia border (in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands); (3) in 
                         the Northeast region of Brazil; (4) in northwestern Paraguay; and 
                         (5) in the River Plate Basin, in Argentina. Moreover, the main 
                         precipitation differences between sensitivity and control 
                         experiments occurred during the rainy months in central-north 
                         South America (October to March). These were associated with a 
                         displacement in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) 
                         positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with 
                         higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences 
                         occur due to the replacement of tropical rainforest for pasture 
                         and agriculture and the replacement of agricultural areas for 
                         pasture, scrubland, and deciduous forest.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00704-016-1800-3",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1800-3",
                 issn = "0177-798X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "pereira_improving.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"