author = "Foss, Marilei and Chou, Sin Chan and Seluchi, Marcelo Enrique",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Centro Nacional de 
                         Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais (CEMADEN)}",
                title = "Interaction of cold fronts with the Brazilian Plateau: a 
                         climatological analysis",
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "37",
               number = "9",
                pages = "3644--3659",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "cold fronts, climatology, orography, Brazilian Plateau.",
             abstract = "Complex orography of elevated terrain and numerous peaks can act 
                         as an important physical barrier to the atmospheric flow and can 
                         generate a range of meteorological phenomena. The objective of 
                         this study is to investigate the effect of the Brazilian Plateau 
                         on the spatial distribution of cold fronts and their climatology 
                         for the period between 1979 and 2010 using Climate Forecast System 
                         Reanalysis data. The cold fronts are detected and divided into 
                         three groups, according to their frequency and trajectory over 
                         South America: the continental fronts are referred to as the AN 
                         group; the fronts that pass over the coastal region of Sao Paulo 
                         are referred to as the SP group; and the fronts that pass over the 
                         two areas are referred to as the ANSP group. Composites of means 
                         and anomalies of atmospheric variables are constructed for each 
                         group. The investigation focuses on the orographic effects of the 
                         Brazilian Plateau on the climatology of the cold fronts. The 
                         Brazilian Plateau affects the spatial distribution ofmaximum and 
                         minimum frontal frequency. The number of cold fronts over the 
                         elevated regions of the Brazilian Plateau is significantly lower 
                         than in the surrounding regions. The maximum frontal frequency is 
                         found to the east of the Andes and a secondary maximum is found 
                         along the Southeast coast of Brazil. The main effect of the 
                         Brazilian Plateau on the mean and anomaly fields of meteorological 
                         variables is to block the dry and cool post-frontal air at lower 
                         atmospheric levels. The most significant anomalies are found in 
                         the ANSP group of cold fronts, which are more intense and move 
                         more rapidly eastward. On the other hand, the AN cold front group 
                         is the most frequent, but the weakest and easily affected by the 
                         Brazilian Plateau orography.",
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.4945",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4945",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "foss_interaction.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"