author = "Menezes Neto, Otac{\'{\i}}lio Leandro de and Coutinho, Mariane 
                         M. and Marengo, Jos{\'e} Ant{\^o}nio and Capistrano, Vinicius 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Centro 
                         T{\'e}cnico Aeroespacial (CTA)} and {Centro Nacional de 
                         Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais (CEMADEN)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: 
                         climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface 
                         temperature and energy budget of South America",
              journal = "Theoretical and Applied Climatology",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "129",
               number = "3/4",
                pages = "1035--1044",
             abstract = "Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of 
                         pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to 
                         biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South 
                         America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 
                         2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme 
                         (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avancados 19:167-185, 
                         2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 
                         10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical 
                         heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic 
                         characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are 
                         performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the 
                         second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of 
                         biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes 
                         that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). 
                         Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased 
                         in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the 
                         surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass 
                         aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the 
                         release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on 
                         temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were 
                         transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00704-016-1821-y",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1821-y",
                 issn = "0177-798X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "menezes_impact.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"