author = "Bagiya, Mala S. and Kherani, Esfhan Alam and Sunil, P. S. and 
                         Sunil, A. S. and Sunda, S. and Ramesh, D. S.",
          affiliation = "{Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (DST)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Indian Institute of 
                         Geomagnetism (DST)} and {Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (DST)} 
                         and {Space Application Centre (ISRO)} and {Indian Institute of 
                         Geomagnetism (DST)}",
                title = "Origin of the ahead of tsunami traveling ionospheric disturbances 
                         during Sumatra tsunami and offshore forecasting",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "122",
               number = "7",
                pages = "7742--7749",
                month = "July",
             abstract = "The presence of ionospheric disturbances associated with Sumatra 
                         2004 tsunami that propagated ahead of tsunami itself has 
                         previously been identified. However, their origin remains 
                         unresolved till date. Focusing on their origin mechanism, we 
                         document these ionospheric disturbances referred as Ahead of 
                         tsunami Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (ATIDs). Using total 
                         electron content (TEC) data from GPS Aided GEO Augmented 
                         Navigation GPS receivers located near the Indian east coast, we 
                         first confirm the ATIDs presence in TEC that appear similar to 90 
                         min ahead of the arrival of tsunami at the Indian east coast. We 
                         propose here a simulation study based on 
                         tsunami-atmospheric-ionospheric coupling that considers 
                         tsunamigenic acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) to excite these 
                         disturbances. We explain the ATIDs generation based on the 
                         dissipation of transverse mode of the primary AGWs. The simulation 
                         corroborates the excitation of ATIDs with characteristics similar 
                         to the observations. Therefore, we offer an alternative 
                         theoretical tool to monitor the offshore ATIDs where observations 
                         are either rare or not available and could be potentially 
                         important for the tsunami early warning.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2017JA023971",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2017JA023971",
                 issn = "2169-9402",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "bagiya_origin.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"