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@Article{HardingMaQiFiMaNoWr:2017:AtScEf,
               author = "Harding, Brian. J. and Makela, Jonathan J. and Qin, Jianqi and 
                         Fisher, Daniel J. and Martins, Carlos R. and Noto, John and 
                         Wrasse, Cristiano Max",
          affiliation = "{University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign} and {University of 
                         Illinois at Urbana-Champaign} and {University of Illinois at 
                         Urbana-Champaign} and {University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign} 
                         and {Boston University} and Computational Physics, Inc and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Atmospheric scattering effects on ground-based measurements of 
                         thermospheric vertical wind, horizontal wind, and temperature",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "122",
               number = "7",
                pages = "7654--7669",
                month = "July",
             abstract = "Ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers routinely observe large 
                         vertical winds in the thermosphere, sometimes reaching over 
                         100m/s. These observations, which use the Doppler shift of the 
                         630.0nm airglow emission to estimate the wind, have long been at 
                         odds with theory. We present a summary of 5years of data from the 
                         North American Thermosphere-Ionosphere Observing Network, showing 
                         that large apparent vertical winds are a persistent feature at 
                         midlatitudes during geomagnetic storms. We develop a radiative 
                         transfer model which demonstrates that these measurements can be 
                         explained as an artifact of the scattering of light in the 
                         troposphere. In addition to the example from midlatitudes, we 
                         apply the model to low latitudes, where we show that the 
                         postsunset vertical winds routinely measured over Brazil are 
                         explained in part by atmospheric scattering. Measurements of the 
                         horizontal wind and temperature are also affected, with errors 
                         reaching 400m/s and 200K in the most extreme cases.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2017JA023942",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2017JA023942",
                 issn = "2169-9402",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "harding_atmospheric.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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