author = "Sales, Lilian Patr{\'{\i}}cia and Ribeiro, Bruno R. and Hayward, 
                         Matt Warrington and Paglia, Adriano and Passamani, Marcelo and 
                         Loyola, Rafael",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Goi{\'a}s (UFG)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de Goi{\'a}s (UFG)} and {Bangor University} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de Lavras (UFLA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar",
              journal = "Journal of Animal Ecology",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "86",
               number = "5",
                pages = "1214--1223",
                month = "Sept.",
             keywords = "biological invasion, conservation biogeography, ecological niche 
                         models, feral pig, invasive alien species.",
             abstract = "1. Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' 
                         fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for 
                         biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to 
                         maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of 
                         invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling 
                         the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the 
                         management of invasive species. 2. Here, we assessed niche shifts 
                         in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus 
                         scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an 
                         ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and 
                         evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. 
                         pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the 
                         drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we 
                         found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological 
                         invasion. 3. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native 
                         and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, 
                         observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, 
                         i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate 
                         is analogous to the native range. 4. Niche unfilling is expected 
                         as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was 
                         potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of 
                         introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high 
                         wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild 
                         boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, 
                         which has profound management implications if we are to prevent 
                         their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled 
                         with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic 
                         losses. 5. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution 
                         suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild 
                         boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche 
                         evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore 
                         probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and morphological 
                         characteristics of this species, coupled with behavioural 
                  doi = "10.1111/1365-2656.12721",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12721",
                 issn = "0021-8790",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "sales_niche.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"