author = "Kayano, Mary Toshie and Andreoli, Rita Val{\'e}ria and Souza, 
                         Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de and Garcia, S{\^a}mia Regina",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEAM)} and {Universidade do 
                         Estado do Amazonas (UEAM)} and {Universidade Federal de 
                         Itajub{\'a} (UNIFEI)}",
                title = "Spatiotemporal variability modes of surface air temperature in 
                         South America during the 1951–2010 period: ENSO and non-ENSO 
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "37",
                pages = "1--13",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "climate variability, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, non-ENSO 
             abstract = "The dominant seasonal surface air temperature (SAT) anomalous 
                         modes over entire South America (SA) for the 19512010 period were 
                         investigated. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and non-ENSO 
                         (residual RES) characteristics of the SAT anomalous modes and the 
                         associated precipitation and temperature advection anomalies were 
                         discussed. The SAT (referred to as TOT) and RES modes were 
                         obtained from the empirical orthogonal function analyses, and the 
                         ENSO modes from the correlation analyses between the SAT anomalies 
                         and the Oceanic Niño index. The SAT TOT modes are in general, 
                         weakly linked to the ENSO, except for the first summer and the 
                         fourth spring TOT modes. For these two modes, the precipitation 
                         variations are more crucial than the temperature advection 
                         variations in defining the SAT anomaly patterns. On the other 
                         hand, the first winter and autumn TOT modes contain mostly the 
                         non-ENSO components and feature an extensive warmed area in 
                         tropical and subtropical SA. For these modes, the subtropical 
                         warming is due to the temperature advection. The TOT modes with a 
                         weak relation to the ENSO and the corresponding RES modes show a 
                         dipolar pattern with a warm node in tropical SA and the cold one 
                         in extratropical SA, and is determined mostly by the 
                         precipitation. Nevertheless, the cold advection reinforces the 
                         cold node of the winter and summer modes. In some cases, the 
                         regional systems contribute to the SAT anomalies. The South 
                         American low-level jet contributes to the positive SAT anomalies 
                         in central and eastern Brazil for the second winter and first 
                         spring RES modes and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone 
                         influences the first summer RES mode. The SAT modes describe 
                         mostly the interannual variations of the SAT patterns over SA, but 
                         some of them also contain decadal and multidecadal time scale 
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.4972",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4972",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Kayano_et_al-2017-International_Journal_of_Climatology.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"