author = "Ramirez Gutierrez, Enver Manuel Amador and Dias, Pedro L. da Silva 
                         and Raupp, Carlos F. M.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)}",
                title = "Multiscale atmosphere-ocean interactions and the low-frequency 
                         variability in the equatorial region",
              journal = "Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "74",
               number = "8",
                pages = "2503--2523",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "Atmosphere-ocean interaction, Dynamics, Waves, atmospheric, Waves, 
             abstract = "In the present study a simplified multiscale atmosphereocean 
                         coupled model for the tropical interactions among synoptic, 
                         intraseasonal, and interannual scales is developed. Two nonlinear 
                         equatorial \β-plane shallow-water equations are considered: 
                         one for the ocean and the other for the atmosphere. The nonlinear 
                         terms are the intrinsic advective nonlinearity and the airsea 
                         coupling fluxes. To mimic the main differences between the fast 
                         atmosphere and the slow ocean, suitable anisotropic 
                         multispace/multitime scalings are applied, yielding a balanced 
                         synopticintraseasonalinterannualEl Niņo (SInEN) regime. In this 
                         distinguished balanced regime, the synoptic scale is the fastest 
                         atmospheric time scale, the intraseasonal scale is the 
                         intermediate airsea coupling time scale (common to both fluid 
                         flows), and El Niņo refers to the slowest interannual ocean time 
                         scale. The asymptotic SInEN equations reveal that the slow wave 
                         amplitude evolution depends on both types of nonlinearities. 
                         Analytic solutions of the reduced SInEN equations for a single 
                         atmosphereocean resonant triad illustrate the potential of the 
                         model to understand slow-frequency variability in the tropics. The 
                         resonant nonlinear wind stress allows a mechanism for the 
                         synoptic-scale atmospheric waves to force intraseasonal 
                         variability in the ocean. The intraseasonal ocean temperature 
                         anomaly coupled with the atmosphere through evaporation forces 
                         synoptic and intraseasonal atmospheric variability. The 
                         waveconvection coupling provides another source for higher-order 
                         atmospheric variability. Nonlinear interactions of intraseasonal 
                         ocean perturbations may also force interannual oceanic 
                         variability. The constrains that determine the establishment of 
                         the atmosphereocean resonant coupling can be viewed as selection 
                         rules for the excitation of intraseasonal variability (MJO) or 
                         even slower interannual variability (El Niņo).",
                  doi = "10.1175/JAS-D-15-0325.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15-0325.1",
                 issn = "0022-4928",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ramirez_multiscale.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"