author = "Lopes, F. S. and Oliveira, J. R. and Milani, J. and Oliveira, L. 
                         D. and Machado, Jo{\~a}o Paulo Barros and Trava Airoldi, Vladimir 
                         Jesus and Lobo, A. O. and Marciano, F. R.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Brasil} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} 
                         and {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Brasil} and 
                         {Universidade Brasil}",
                title = "Biomineralized diamond-like carbon films with incorporated 
                         titanium dioxide nanoparticles improved bioactivity properties and 
                         reduced biofilm formation",
              journal = "Materials Science and Engineering C",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "81",
                pages = "373--379",
                month = "Dec.",
             keywords = "Diamond-like carbonTitanium 
             abstract = "Recently, the development of coatings to protect biomedical alloys 
                         from oxidation, passivation and to reduce the ability for a 
                         bacterial biofilm to form after implantation has emerged. 
                         Diamond-like carbon films are commonly used for implanted medical 
                         due to their physical and chemical characteristics, showing good 
                         interactions with the biological environment. However, these 
                         properties can be significantly improved when titanium dioxide 
                         nanoparticles are included, especially to enhance the bactericidal 
                         properties of the films. So far, the deposition of hydroxyapatite 
                         on the film surface has been studied in order to improve 
                         biocompatibility and bioactive behavior. Herein, we developed a 
                         new route to obtain a homogeneous and crystalline apatite coating 
                         on diamond-like carbon films grown on 304 biomedical stainless 
                         steel and evaluated its antibacterial effect. For this purpose, 
                         films containing two different concentrations of titanium dioxide 
                         (0.1 and 0.3 g/L) were obtained by chemical vapor deposition. To 
                         obtain the apatite layer, the samples were soaked in simulated 
                         body fluid solution for up to 21 days. The antibacterial activity 
                         of the films was evaluated by bacterial eradication tests using 
                         Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray 
                         diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and goniometry showed 
                         that homogeneous, crystalline, and hydrophilic apatite films were 
                         formed independently of the titanium dioxide concentration. 
                         Interestingly, the diamond-like films containing titanium dioxide 
                         and hydroxyapatite reduced the biofilm formation compared to 
                         controls. A synergism between hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide 
                         that provided an antimicrobial effect against opportunistic 
                         pathogens was clearly observed.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.msec.2017.07.043",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2017.07.043",
                 issn = "0928-4931",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "lopes_biomineralized.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"