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@Article{CecchiniMAMAABBFJMMMPPRVWW:2017:SeAmCl,
               author = "Cecchini, Micael Amore and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and 
                         Andreae, Meinrat O. and Martin, Scot T. and Albrecht, Rachel I. 
                         and Artaxo, Paulo and Barbosa, Henrique M. J. and Borrmann, 
                         Stephan and F{\"u}tterer, Daniel and Jurkat, Tina and Mahnke, 
                         Christoph and Minikin, Andreas and Molleker, Sergej and 
                         P{\"o}hlker, Mira L. and P{\"o}schl, Ulrich and Rosenfeld, 
                         Daniel and Voigt, Christiane and Weinzierl, Bernadett and 
                         Wendisch, Manfred",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Max Planck Institute 
                         for Chemistry} and {Harvard University} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {Deutsches Zentrum f{\"u}r Luft- und 
                         Raumfahrt (DLR)} and {Deutsches Zentrum f{\"u}r Luft- und 
                         Raumfahrt (DLR)} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and 
                         {Deutsches Zentrum f{\"u}r Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)} and 
                         {Johannes Gutenberg-Universit{\"a}t} and {Max Planck Institute 
                         for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {The 
                         Hebrew University of Jerusalem} and {Johannes 
                         Gutenberg-Universit{\"a}t} and {Deutsches Zentrum f{\"u}r Luft- 
                         und Raumfahrt (DLR)} and {Universit{\"a}t Leipzig}",
                title = "Sensitivities of Amazonian clouds to aerosols and updraft speed",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "17",
               number = "16",
                pages = "10037--10050",
                month = "Aug.",
             abstract = "The effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on warm-phase 
                         cloud microphysical properties are studied in the Amazon region as 
                         part of the ACRIDICON-CHUVA experiment. Here we expand the 
                         sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by 
                         concomitantly considering cloud evolution, putting the sensitivity 
                         quantifications into perspective in relation to in-cloud 
                         processing, and by considering the effects on droplet size 
                         distribution (DSD) shape. Our in situ aircraft measurements over 
                         the Amazon Basin cover a wide range of particle concentration and 
                         thermodynamic conditions, from the pristine regions over coastal 
                         and forested areas to the southern Amazon, which is highly 
                         polluted from biomass burning. The quantitative results show that 
                         particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical 
                         profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the 
                         warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds, while updraft speeds 
                         have a modulating role in the latter and in total condensed water. 
                         The cloud microphysical properties were found to be highly 
                         variable with altitude above cloud base, which we used as a proxy 
                         for cloud evolution since it is a measure of the time droplets 
                         that were subject to cloud processing. We show that DSD shape is 
                         crucial in understanding cloud sensitivities. The aerosol effect 
                         on DSD shape was found to vary with altitude, which can help 
                         models to better constrain the indirect aerosol effect on 
                         climate.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-17-10037-2017",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-10037-2017",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "freitas_controle.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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