author = "Garcia, S{\^a}mia R. and Kayano, Mary Toshie and Calheiros, Alan 
                         James Peixoto and Andreoli, Rita Val{\'e}ria and Souza, Rodrigo 
                         Augusto Ferreira de",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Itajub{\'a} (UNIFEI)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade do Estado do 
                         Amazonas (UEAM)} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEAM)}",
                title = "Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: 
                         climatological aspects",
              journal = "Theoretical and Applied Climatology",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "130",
               number = "1/2",
                pages = "233--247",
                month = "Oct.",
             abstract = "The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for 
                         subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is 
                         investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct 
                         phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget 
                         equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for 
                         Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or 
                         sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as 
                         residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for 
                         the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) 
                         for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, 
                         that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The 
                         differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The 
                         CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in 
                         all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB 
                         region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a 
                         moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet 
                         (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the 
                         persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB 
                         areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is 
                         consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 
                         2012, and 2014.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00704-016-1882-y",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1882-y",
                 issn = "0177-798X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "garcia_moisture.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "19 jan. 2021"