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@Article{AndreaeAAHABBCCDFJJKKKKKMMMPPPRSSSSSSSVWWWWZ:2017:AeChPa,
               author = "Andreae, Meinrat O. and Afchine, Armin and Albrecht, Rachel and 
                         Holanda, Bruna Amorim and Artaxo, Paulo and Barbosa, Henrique M. 
                         J. and Borrmann, Stephan and Cecchini, Micael Amore and Costa, 
                         Anja and Dollner, Maximilian and F{\"u}tterer, Daniel and 
                         J{\"a}rvinen, Emma and Jurkat, Tina and Klimach, Thomas and 
                         Konemann, Tobias and Knote, Christoph and Kr{\"a}mer, Martina and 
                         Krisna, Trismono and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Mertes, 
                         Stephan and Minikin, Andreas and P{\"o}hlker, Christopher and 
                         P{\"o}hlker, Mira L. and P{\"o}schl, Ulrich and Rosenfeld, 
                         Daniel and Sauer, Daniel and Schlager, Hans and Schnaiter, Martin 
                         and Schneider, Johannes and Schulz, Christiane and Spanu, Antonio 
                         and Sperling, Vicinius Banda and Voigt, Christine and Walser, 
                         Adrian and Wang, Jian and Weinzierl, Bernadett and Wendisch, 
                         Manfred and Ziereis, Helmut",
          affiliation = "{Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Forschungszentrum 
                         J{\"u}lich} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max 
                         Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Max 
                         Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Forschungszentrum J{\"u}lich} 
                         and {Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA)} and {Institute of 
                         Atmospheric Physics (IPA)} and {Karlsruhe Institute of Technology} 
                         and {Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA)} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} 
                         and {Ludwig Maximilian University} and {Forschungszentrum 
                         J{\"u}lich} and {Leipzig University} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Leibniz Institute for 
                         Tropospheric Research} and {Institute of Atmospheric Physics 
                         (IPA)} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} 
                         and {The Hebrew University of Jerusalem} and {Institute of 
                         Atmospheric Physics (IPA)} and {Institute of Atmospheric Physics 
                         (IPA)} and {Karlsruhe Institute of Technology} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} 
                         and {Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Institute of 
                         Atmospheric Physics (IPA)} and {Ludwig Maximilian University} and 
                         {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Institute of Atmospheric 
                         Physics (IPA)} and {Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA)} and 
                         {Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA)}",
                title = "Aerosol characteristics and particle production in the upper 
                         troposphere over the Amazon Basin",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "694",
                pages = "1--95",
                month = "Aug.",
             abstract = "Airborne observations over the Amazon Basin showed high aerosol 
                         particle concentrations in the upper troposphere (UT) between 8 
                         and 15 km altitude, with number densities (normalized to standard 
                         temperature and pressure) often exceeding those in the planetary 
                         boundary layer (PBL) by one or two orders of magnitude. The 
                         measurements were made during the German-Brazilian cooperative 
                         aircraft campaign ACRIDICON-CHUVA on the German High Altitude and 
                         Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The campaign took place in 
                         September/October 2014, with the objective of studying tropical 
                         deep convective clouds over the Amazon rain-forest and their 
                         interactions with atmospheric trace gases, aerosol particles, and 
                         atmospheric radiation.Aerosol enhancements were observed 
                         consistently on all flights during which the UT was probed, using 
                         several aerosol metrics, including condensation nuclei (CN) and 
                         cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations and chemical 
                         species mass concentrations. The UT particles differed in their 
                         chemical composition and size distribution from those in the PBL, 
                         ruling out convective transport of combustion-derived particles 
                         from the BL as a source. The air in the immediate outflow of deep 
                         convective clouds was depleted in aerosol particles, whereas 
                         strongly enhanced number concentrations of small particles (<90 nm 
                         diameter) were found in UT regions that had experienced outflow 
                         from deep convection in the preceding 5-72 hours. We also found 
                         elevated concentrations of larger (>90 nm) particles in the UT, 
                         which consisted mostly of organic matter and nitrate and were very 
                         effective CCN. Our findings suggest a conceptual model, where 
                         production of new aerosol particles takes place in the UT from 
                         volatile material brought up by deep convection, which is 
                         converted to condensable species in the UT. Subsequently, downward 
                         mixing and transport of upper tropospheric aerosol can be a source 
                         of particles to the PBL, where they increase in size by the 
                         condensation of biogenic volatile organic carbon (BVOC) oxidation 
                         products. This may be an important source of aerosol particles in 
                         the Amazonian PBL, where aerosol nucleation and new particle 
                         formation has not been observed. We propose that this may have 
                         been the dominant process supplying secondary aerosol particles in 
                         the pristine atmosphere, making clouds the dominant control of 
                         both removal and production of atmospheric particles.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-2017-694",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-694",
                 issn = "1680-7367",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "andreae_aerosol.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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