author = "Brazil, Tayra R. and Baldan, Maur{\'{\i}}cio Ribeiro and Massi, 
                         Marcos and Rezende, Mirabel C.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         de S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo (UNIFESP)}",
                title = "Structural behavior of coal obtained from Kraft lignin at 
                         different carbonizing rates",
              journal = "Materials Today: Proceedings",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "4",
               number = "11",
                pages = "11617--11623",
             keywords = "lignin, coal, conversion.",
             abstract = "Biomass is a renewable resource which importance has attracted 
                         much attention face to the concerns involving the environmental 
                         and the oil crisis. The aim of this work is to convert lignin into 
                         coal by carbonization heat treatment of this biomass up to 1000 
                         C, under inert atmosphere, at different heating rates. The 
                         resulted coal samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, 
                         Raman spectroscopy and surface area analyzes. Raman spectroscopy 
                         and X-ray diffraction results show that longer heat treatment 
                         resulted in coals more ordered structurally. On the order hand, 
                         longer heat treatments favored the coal production with smaller 
                         surface area.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.matpr.2017.09.073",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.09.073",
                 issn = "2214-7853",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "brazil_structural.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"