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@PhDThesis{Porfirio:2018:CoMoAe,
               author = "Porfirio, Anthony Carlos Silva",
                title = "Uma contribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a} modelagem de aerossol e 
                         componentes da radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar no modelo GL",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2018",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2017-11-29",
             keywords = "radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar, aeross{\'o}is atmosf{\'e}ricos, 
                         componentes da radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar, sat{\'e}lites 
                         meteorol{\'o}gicos, solar radiation, atmospheric aerosols, solar 
                         radiation components, meteorological satellites.",
             abstract = "O modelo f{\'{\i}}sico GL {\'e} utilizado no CPTEC/INPE para o 
                         monitoramento da radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar global {\`a} 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie no Brasil e na Am{\'e}rica do Sul com base em 
                         imagens do canal vis{\'{\i}}vel (VIS) de sat{\'e}lites 
                         geoestacion{\'a}rios. As informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es geradas pelo 
                         modelo t{\^e}m se mostrado {\'u}teis para uma variedade de 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~o}es, como estudos clim{\'a}ticos, 
                         valida{\c{c}}{\~a}o de modelos atmosf{\'e}ricos regionais, 
                         modelagem da evapotranspira{\c{c}}{\~a}o e levantamento do 
                         potencial solar. Devido {\`a} sua relev{\^a}ncia, 
                         esfor{\c{c}}os cient{\'{\i}}ficos com o intuito de investigar a 
                         qualidade das estimativas e identificar limita{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         s{\~a}o fundamentais para propor aperfei{\c{c}}oamentos e 
                         assegurar bons n{\'{\i}}veis de acur{\'a}cia. Nesse contexto, o 
                         presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma 
                         contribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o ao modelo GL atrav{\'e}s da an{\'a}lise 
                         do desempenho de suas estimativas, bem como com o aprimoramento de 
                         suas hip{\'o}teses f{\'{\i}}sicas e com a inclus{\~a}o de 
                         novas parametriza{\c{c}}{\~o}es. Primeiramente, avaliou-se o 
                         desempenho do modelo GL aplicado {\`a}s imagens GOES 
                         (GL\$_{G1.2}\$) e MSG (GL\$_{M1.2}\$ e GL\$_{M1.4}\$) sobre 
                         o territ{\'o}rio brasileiro. As estimativas GL, na base mensal, 
                         apresentaram uma boa concord{\^a}ncia com a verdade terrestre, 
                         sobretudo nas regi{\~o}es nordeste, sudeste e sul, com erros 
                         m{\'e}dios entre \$\pm\$ 10 W m\$^{-2}\$. Maiores 
                         discrep{\^a}ncias nas estimativas GL foram percebidas nas 
                         regi{\~o}es norte e centro-oeste, principalmente na {\'e}poca de 
                         maior concentra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de aeross{\'o}is atmosf{\'e}ricos 
                         (agosto-outubro), com desvios m{\'e}dios mensais de 36 e 18 W 
                         m\$^{-2}\$, respectivamente. As compara{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre 
                         GL\$_{G}\$ e GL\$_{M}\$ mostraram que para a regi{\~a}o 
                         nordeste as estimativas s{\~a}o bastante semelhantes, o que pode 
                         ser creditado ao fato que essa regi{\~a}o {\'e} observada pelos 
                         sat{\'e}lites com {\^a}ngulo de visada similar. An{\'a}lise 
                         complementar para esta{\c{c}}{\~o}es radiom{\'e}tricas 
                         localizadas na Espanha, mostraram um excelente desempenho do 
                         GL\$_{M1.4}\$, com um MBE de apenas -0,2 W m\$^{-2}\$ e RMSE 
                         de 13,8 W m\$^{-2}\$. O modelo GL negligencia a presen{\c{c}}a 
                         de aeross{\'o}is. Assim, em seguida, investigou-se o impacto dos 
                         aeross{\'o}is atmosf{\'e}ricos nas estimativas do modelo GL. 
                         Ciclos di{\'a}rios medidos e estimados foram comparados para dias 
                         de c{\'e}u claro na {\'e}poca do pico de queimadas na 
                         regi{\~a}o sul da Amaz{\^o}nia. Tal an{\'a}lise evidenciou a 
                         tend{\^e}ncia do modelo em superestimar a medida para dias com 
                         concentra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de aeross{\'o}is relevantes. 
                         An{\'a}lises te{\'o}ricas utilizando o c{\'o}digo de 
                         transfer{\^e}ncia radiativa SBDART permitiram o desenvolvimento 
                         de parametriza{\c{c}}{\~o}es para os aeross{\'o}is no modelo 
                         GL. Adotaram-se propriedades {\'o}pticas de aeross{\'o}is 
                         referentes a dois tipos (rural e queimadas). As primeiras 
                         valida{\c{c}}{\~o}es do novo esquema, denominado de 
                         GL\$_{2.0}\$, mostraram um aperfei{\c{c}}oamento na estimativa 
                         dos ciclos di{\'a}rios e da irradia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar em 
                         rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o a vers{\~a}o GL\$_{1.2}\$. O impacto na 
                         irradi{\^a}ncia solar global m{\'e}dia di{\'a}ria variou entre 
                         -50 e -15 W m\$^{-2}\$ para profundidades {\'o}pticas de 1,0 e 
                         0,3, para um dia com evidente presen{\c{c}}a da pluma regional de 
                         aeross{\'o}is de queimada. Por fim, o procedimento aplicado para 
                         a estimativa particionada das componentes da radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         solar global, direta e difusa, a partir do GL\$_{2.0}\$ e de um 
                         modelo de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o direta por sat{\'e}lite se mostrou 
                         promissor. As estimativas de irradia{\c{c}}{\~a}o global, direta 
                         e difusa por sat{\'e}lite mostraram boa concord{\^a}ncia com as 
                         medidas de superf{\'{\i}}cie, com valores m{\'e}dios para o MBE 
                         de -0,2, 1,0 e -1,0 MJ m\$^{-2}\$ e para o RMSE de 1,6, 2,0 e 
                         2,0 MJ m\$^{-2}\$, respectivamente. Em geral, os resultados 
                         obtidos foram consistentes, e conceberam de maneira natural, duas 
                         novas vers{\~o}es com grande potencial para 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~o}es em pesquisa e para fins operacionais. 
                         ABSTRACT: The physical model GL is used at CPTEC/INPE for 
                         monitoring solar radiation over Brazil and South America based on 
                         geostationary satellite VIS imagery. The information generated by 
                         GL has shown to be useful for a variety of applications, such as 
                         climate studies, validation of regional atmospheric models, 
                         evapotranspiration modeling and renewable energy studies. Thus, 
                         scientific efforts to investigate the GL's quality and to identify 
                         limitations are essential in order to propose refinements and 
                         ensure good levels of accuracy. The aim of this work was to 
                         contribute to GL model structure through validations studies as 
                         well as the improvement of its physical hypotheses and the 
                         inclusion of new parametrizations. Firstly, the performance of the 
                         GL model applied to GOES (version GL\$_{G1.2}\$) and MSG 
                         (version GL\$_{M1.2}\$ and GL\$_{M1.4}\$) over the Brazilian 
                         territory was evaluated. The global solar irradiance estimates on 
                         a monthly basis showed good agreement with ground truth 
                         (especially in the northeast, southeast and south regions) with 
                         mean bias errors lower than 10 W m\$^{-2}\$. Larger 
                         discrepancies in the GL estimates were observed in the north and 
                         center-west regions, especially during biomass burning season 
                         (August-October), with mean monthly deviations of 36 and 18 W 
                         m\$^{-2}\$, respectively. Comparisons between GL\$_{G}\$ and 
                         GL\$_{M}\$ showed quite similar estimates in the northeast 
                         region, probably due to the fact that this region is observed with 
                         similar angle of view from both satellites. Complementary analysis 
                         for stations located in Spain showed excellent performance of 
                         GL\$_{M1.4}\$ estimates, with MBE of -0,2 W m\$^{-2}\$ and 
                         RMSE of 13,8 W m\$^{-2}\$. GL model neglects the presence of 
                         aerosol. So, the next step was to investigate the impact of this 
                         atmospheric constituent. Daily cycles for clear sky days during 
                         burning biomass peak in the Amazon were considered. This analysis 
                         made evident the tendency of the model to overestimate ground 
                         truth for days with high aerosol loading. New algorithms were 
                         developed for describing this influence. Simulations using the 
                         radiative transfer code SBDART allowed to find proper 
                         parameterizations for the new variables. Two aerosol optical 
                         models were considered (rural and smoke). The first validations of 
                         the new scheme (called GL\$_{2.0}\$) showed an improvement 
                         related to previous versions GL\$_{1.2}\$, for estimation of 
                         daily cycles as well as daily irradiation. The impact on daily 
                         mean global solar irradiance ranged from -50 to -15 W m\$^{-2}\$ 
                         in one day with evident presence of regional aerosol plumes 
                         showing aerosol optical depths between 1,0 and 0,3, respectively. 
                         Last but not least, a method for estimating direct normal 
                         irradiance and its daily integral was improved. It allows 
                         estimation of diffuse irradiation by a simple partition of global 
                         in direct and diffuse irradiance. The results are promising. 
                         Validations against four Brazilian stations show mean values for 
                         MBE of -0,2, 1,0 and -1,0 MJ m\$^{-2}\$ and for RMSE of 1,6, 2,0 
                         and 2,0 MJ m\$^{-2}\$. In general, the results reported were 
                         consistent, generating in a natural way, two new versions with 
                         great potential for research and operational purposes.",
            committee = "Coelho, Simone Marilene Sievert da Costa (presidente) and 
                         Ceballos, Juan Carlos (orientador) and Pereira, Enio Bueno and 
                         Martins, Fernando Ramos and Ros{\'a}rio, Nilton Manuel {\'E}vora 
                         do",
         englishtitle = "A contribution to aerosol and solar radiation components modeling 
                         on GL model",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "134",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3Q4PAHH",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3Q4PAHH",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"
}


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