author = "Broedel, Elis{\^a}ngela and Von Randow, Celso and Cuartas, Luz 
                         Adriana and Nobre, Ant{\^o}nio Donato and Ara{\'u}jo, Alessandro 
                         Carioca de and Kruijt, Bart and Tourigny, Etienne and 
                         C{\^a}ndido, Luiz Ant{\^o}nio and Hodnett, Martin and Tomasella, 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Centro Nacional de 
                         Monitoramento de Desastres Naturais (CEMADEN)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and Embrapa and 
                         {Wageningen University} and {Barcelona Supercomputing Center 
                         (BSC)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia 
                         (INPA)} and {Centre for Ecology and Hydrology} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Simulation of Surface Fluxes in Two Distinct Environments along a 
                         Topographic Gradient in a Central Amazonian Forest using the 
                         INtegrated LAND Surface Model",
              journal = "Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "2017",
                pages = "1--49",
             keywords = "Landscape heterogeneity, plateau, valley, land surface model, 
                         water balance, 45 carbon balance, central Amazon, Terra Firme 
                         forest soil and vegetation parameters.",
             abstract = "The Integrated Land Surface model (INLAND) land surface model, in 
                         offline mode, was 25 adjusted and forced with prescribed climate 
                         to represent two contrasting environments along a 26 topographic 
                         gradient in a central Amazon Terra Firme forest, which is 
                         distinguished by well- 27 drained, flat plateaus and poorly 
                         drained, broad river valleys. To correctly simulate the valley 28 
                         area, a lumped unconfined aquifer model was included in the INLAND 
                         model to represent the 29 water table dynamics and results show 
                         reasonable agreement with observations. Field data 30 from both 
                         areas are used to evaluate the model simulations of energy, water 
                         and carbon 31 fluxes. The model is able to characterize with good 
                         accuracy the main differences that appear 32 in the seasonal 
                         energy and carbon partitioning of plateau and valley fluxes, which 
                         are related 33 to features of the vegetation associated with soils 
                         and topography. The simulated latent heat 34 flux (LE) and net 
                         ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE), for example, are higher on the 
                         35 plateau area while at the bottom of the valley the sensible 
                         heat flux (H) is noticeably higher 36 than at the plateau, in 
                         agreement with observed data. Differences in simulated 
                         hydrological 37 fluxes are also linked to the topography, showing 
                         a higher surface runoff (R) and lower 38 evapotranspiration (ET) 
                         in the valley area. The different behavior of the fluxes on both 
                         annual and diurnal time scales confirms the benefit of a tiling 
                         mechanism in the presence of large 40 contrast and the importance 
                         to incorporate subgrid-scale variability by including relief 41 
                         attributes of topography, soil and vegetation to better 
                         representing Terra Firme forests in 42 land surface models.",
                  doi = "{10.5194/hess-2017-203, 2017}",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/{10.5194/hess-2017-203, 2017}",
                 issn = "1812-2108",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "broedel_simulation.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "20 jan. 2021"