author = "Makarieva, A. M. and Gorshkov, V. G. and Nefiodov, A. V. and 
                         Sheil, D. and Nobre, Antonio Donato and Shearman, P. L. and Li, B. 
          affiliation = "{Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute} and {Petersburg Nuclear 
                         Physics Institute} and {Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute} and 
                         {Norwegian University of Life Sciences} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {The Australian National 
                         University} and {University of California}",
                title = "Kinetic energy generation in heat engines and heat pumps: the 
                         relationship between surface pressure, temperature and circulation 
                         cell size",
              journal = "Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "69",
                pages = "1272752",
             keywords = "meridional circulation cells, kinetic energy generation, surface 
                         temperature, surface pressure gradient, Carnot cycle, heat engine, 
                         heat pump, condensation.",
             abstract = "The pattern and size of the Earths atmospheric circulation cells 
                         determine regional climates and challenge theorists. Here the 
                         authors present a theoretical framework that relates the size of 
                         meridional cells to the kinetic energy generation within them. 
                         Circulation cells are considered as heat engines (or heat pumps) 
                         driven by surface gradients of pressure and temperature. This 
                         approach allows an analytical assessment of kinetic energy 
                         generation in the meridional cells from the known values of 
                         surface pressure and temperature differences across the cell, and 
                         . Two major patterns emerge. First, the authors find that kinetic 
                         energy generation in the upper and lower atmosphere respond in 
                         contrasting ways to surface temperature: with growing , kinetic 
                         energy generation increases in the upper atmosphere but declines 
                         in the lower. A requirement that kinetic energy generation must be 
                         positive in the lower atmosphere can limit the poleward cell 
                         extension of the Hadley cells via a relationship between and . The 
                         limited extent of the Hadley cells necessitates the appearance of 
                         heat pumps (Ferrel cells) circulation cells with negative work 
                         output. These cells consume the positive work output of the Hadley 
                         cells (heat engines) and can in theory drive the global efficiency 
                         of an axisymmetric atmospheric circulation down to zero. Second, 
                         the authors show that, within a cell, kinetic energy generation is 
                         largely determined by in the upper atmosphere, and by in the 
                         lower. By absolute magnitude, the temperature contribution is 
                         about 10 times larger. However, since the heat pumps act as sinks 
                         of kinetic energy in the upper atmosphere, the net kinetic energy 
                         generation in the upper atmosphere, as well as the net impact of 
                         surface temperature, is reduced. The authors use NCAR/NCEP and 
                         MERRA data to verify the obtained theoretical relationships. These 
                         observations confirm considerable cancellation between the 
                         temperature-related sources and sinks of kinetic energy in the 
                         upper atmosphere. Both the theoretical approach and observations 
                         highlight a major contribution from surface pressure gradients, 
                         rather than temperature, in the kinetic energy budget of 
                         meridional circulation. The findings urge increased attention to 
                         surface pressure gradients as determinants of the meridional 
                         circulation patterns.",
                  doi = "10.1080/16000870.2016.1272752",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16000870.2016.1272752",
                 issn = "0280-6495",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "makarieva_kinetic.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"