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@Article{MachadoCBGDCAAAABBBEFFFJMPPRPRSSTWW:2017:PrChSe,
               author = "Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Calheiros, Alan James Peixoto and 
                         Biscaro, Thiago Souza and Giangrande, Scott and Dias, Maria A. F. 
                         Silva and Cecchini, Micael A. and Albrecht, Rachel and Andreae, 
                         Meinrat O. and Araujo, Wagner F. and Artaxo, Paulo and Bormann, 
                         Stephan and Braga, Ramon and Burleyson, Casey and Eichholz, 
                         Cristiano Wickboldt and Fan, Jiwen and Feng, Zheng and Fisch, 
                         Gilberto F. and Jensen, Michael P. and Martin, Scot T. and 
                         P{\"o}schl, Ulrich and P{\"o}hlker, Christopher and Ribaud, 
                         Jean-Fran{\c{c}}ois and P{\"o}hlker, Mira L. and Rosenfeld, 
                         Daniel and Saraiva, Jaci M. B. and Schumacher, Courtney and 
                         Thalman, Ryan and Walter, David and Wendisch, Manfred",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Brookhaven National Laboratory} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Pacific Northwest 
                         National Laboratory} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and 
                         {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and {Department of 
                         Aerospace Science and technology} and {Brookhaven National 
                         Laboratory} and {Harvard University} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Max Planck Institute 
                         for Chemistry} and {Hebrew University of Jerusalem} and {Amazon 
                         Protection System (SIPAM)} and {Texas A\&M University} and {Snow 
                         College} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Leipzig 
                         University}",
                title = "Overview: precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to the 
                         environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and 
                         ACRIDICON-CHUVA",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "990",
             abstract = "Abstract. This is study provides an overview of precipitation 
                         processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions, in 
                         the Central Amazon Basin, during the GoAmazon2014/5 and 
                         ACRIDICON-CHUVA experiments. Taking advantage of the numerous 
                         measuring platforms and instruments systems operating during both 
                         campaigns sampling cloud structure and environmental conditions 
                         during 2014 and 2015, the rainfall variability among seasons, 
                         aerosol loading, land surface type, and topography have carefully 
                         been characterized. Differences between the wet and dry seasons 
                         were examined from a variety of different perspectives. The rain 
                         rate distribution, the total amount of rainfall, and the raindrop 
                         size distribution (the mean mass-weighted diameter) were 
                         quantified for the two seasons. The dry season has a higher 
                         average rain rate than the wet season and reflects more intense 
                         rain. While the cumulative wet season rainfall amount was four 
                         times larger than the total dry season rainfall, reflecting in 
                         large total rainfall accumulation. The typical size and life cycle 
                         of the Amazon cloud clusters (observed by satellite) and rain 
                         cells (observed by radar) were examined, as well their differences 
                         among the seasons. Moreover, we analyse the monthly mean 
                         thermodynamical and dynamical variables, measured by radiosondes 
                         to elucidate the differences in rainfall characteristics during 
                         the wet and dry seasons. The sensitivity of rainfall to the 
                         atmospheric aerosol loading is discussed with regard to the mean 
                         mass-weighted diameter and rain rate. This topic was evaluated 
                         during the wet season only due to the insignificant statistics of 
                         rainfall events for different ranges of aerosol loadings and the 
                         low frequency of precipitation events during the dry season. The 
                         aerosol impacts on the cloud droplet diameter is different for 
                         small and large drops. For the wet season, we observe no 
                         dependence on land surface type on the rain rate. However, during 
                         the dry season, urban areas exhibit the largest rain rate tail 
                         distribution, and deforested regions have the lowest mean rain 
                         rate. Airplane measurements were performed to characterize and 
                         contrast cloud microphysical properties and processes over 
                         forested and deforested regions. The vertical motion turned out to 
                         be uncorrelated with cloud droplet sizes, but the cloud droplets 
                         number concentration revealed a linear relationship to the 
                         vertical motion. Clouds over forest exhibit larger droplets than 
                         clouds over pastures at all cloud levels. Finally, the connections 
                         between topography and rain rate were evaluated, showing a higher 
                         rain rate over higher elevations for the dry season.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-2017-990",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-990",
                 issn = "1680-7367",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "machado_overview.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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