author = "Marengo, J. and Muller-Karger, F. and Pelling, M. and Reynolds, C. 
                         J. and Merrill, S. B. and Nunes, L. H. and Paterson, S. and Gray, 
                         A. J. and Lockman, J. T. and Kartez, J. and Moreira, F. A. and 
                         Greco, R. and Harari, J. and Souza, C. R. G. and Alves, Lincoln 
                         Muniz and Hosokawa, E. K. and Tabuchi, E. K.",
          affiliation = "{Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastre Naturais 
                         (CEMADEN)} and {University of South Florida} and {King’s College 
                         London} and {University of South Florida} and {GEI Consultants 
                         Inc} and {Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and 
                         {University College Cork} and {GEI Consultants Inc} and {GEI 
                         Consultants Inc} and {University of Southern Maine} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo (USP)} and {Geological Institute of S{\~a}o Paulo} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "An integrated framework to analyze local decision making and 
                         adaptation to sea level rise in coastal regions in Selsey (UK), 
                         Broward County (USA), and Santos (Brazil)",
              journal = "American Journal of Climate Change",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "6",
               number = "2",
                pages = "403--424",
             keywords = "Sea Level Rise, Vulnerability, Adaptation, Impacts, Climate 
             abstract = "One of the clear signals of the ongoing climate change is sea 
                         level rise (SLR). Normal oceanic tides superimposed on a rising 
                         sea level and coastal flooding will affect many coastal 
                         communities. An international collaboration among Brazil, the 
                         United Kingdom, and the United States was designed to evaluate 
                         local decision making processes and to open space for local urban 
                         managers to reflect on possible actions toward adaption to sea 
                         level rise given the historical constraints imposed by 
                         administrative and institutional structures. This project focused 
                         on the processes that shape adaptation of three coastal 
                         communities in three countries. It worked jointly with these 
                         communities in defining the problem, examining risks, and 
                         understanding the benefits and obstacles that may hinder 
                         implementation of adaptation options. The framework was 
                         co-designed by an interdisciplinary team that incorporated social 
                         and natural scientists from the three countries, including local 
                         government officials. The study addressed 1) evaluation of 
                         adaptive capacity through participant surveys and 2) physical and 
                         cost impact simulations using geospatial models of the built 
                         infrastructure and implementation of adaptation options under 
                         different hazard scenarios, including 50 and 100-year sea level 
                         rise projections and severe storms. Based on the surveys results, 
                         there is a clear sense of the awareness of each community of the 
                         risk of floods due to intense storms, and of the usefulness of 
                         engaging early in a process that promotes the understanding of 
                         risks, impacts, and costs. A majority of workshop participants 
                         prioritized pursuing physical and green infrastructure actions now 
                         or within coming years or decades. A positive common aspect of the 
                         three sites was the commitment shown by the stakeholders in taking 
                         part in the process and evaluating which adaptation measures could 
                         be more effective in their cities. While in the US and UK 
                         structural solutions and voluntary buyouts were prioritized for 
                         the future, Brazil prioritized structural solutions and ecosystems 
                         restoration and not voluntary buyouts. All of these are choices to 
                         increase resiliency against sea level rise that have a high 
                         benefit-cost ratio. The Adaptive Capacity Index (ACI) results 
                         illustrate barriers to adaptation action, including technical, 
                         economic and political issues that reveal inequalities in adaptive 
                         capacity among case studies.",
                 issn = "2167-9495 and 2167-9509",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "marengo.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 jan. 2021"