author = "Welter, Maria Eug{\^e}nia Sausen and Campos Velho, Haroldo Fraga 
                         de and Freitas, S. R. and Ruiz, Rennan S. R.",
                title = "Counter-gradient term applied to the turbulence parameterization 
                         in the BRAMS",
            booktitle = "Integral Methods in Science and Engineering",
            publisher = "Birkhauser",
                 year = "2017",
               editor = "Constanda, Christian and Dalla Riva, Matteo and Lamberti, Pier 
                         Domenico and Musolino, Paolo",
                pages = "299--309",
              address = "Cham, Switzerland",
             keywords = "numerical wheater prediction, turbulence, BRAMS.",
             abstract = "The numerical weather prediction is a routine in operational 
                         meteorological centers, where sophisticated computer models are 
                         executed. The atmospheric dynamics is simulated by solving the 
                         Navier-Stokes equations, considering several physical phenomena. 
                         One parameterization applied to this dynamical system is to 
                         represent the turbulence. A counter-gradient flow can be described 
                         for higher order closure turbulence approaches. Here, a first 
                         order parameterization for the turbulent flow is coupled with an 
                         explicit counter-gradient term. Both latter schemes are based on 
                         the Taylors statistical theory of turbulence. The parameterization 
                         schemes are applied to the BRAMS, a mesoscale meteorological 
                         model. The simulation is compared with experimental data measured 
                         in the Brazilian Amazon region.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {National Aeronautics 
                         and Space Administration (NASA)}",
                 isbn = "978-3-319-59386-9",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "welter_counter.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"