author = "Silva, Fernanda Batista and Longo, Karla Maria and Andrade, Felipe 
                         Marques de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Spatial and temporal variability patterns of the urban heat island 
                         in S{\~a}o Paulo",
              journal = "Environments",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "4",
               number = "2",
                pages = "1--26",
             keywords = "urban heat island, air temperature, S{\~a}o Paulo, multivariate 
                         statistical techniques, empirical orthogonal function, cluster 
             abstract = "The spatial and temporal variability patterns of the urban heat 
                         island (UHI) in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo (MASP) were 
                         investigated using hourly temperature observations for a 10-year 
                         period from January 2002 to December 2011. The empirical 
                         orthogonal function (EOF) and cluster analysis (CA) techniques for 
                         multivariate analysis were used to determine the dominant modes of 
                         UHI variability and to identify the homogeneity between the 
                         temperature observations in the MASP. The EOF method was used to 
                         obtain the spatial patterns (T-mode EOF) and to define temporal 
                         variability (S-mode EOF). In the T-mode, three main modes of 
                         variability were recognized. The first EOF explained 66.7% of the 
                         total variance in the air temperature, the second explained 24.0%, 
                         and the third explained 7.8%. The first and third EOFs were 
                         associated with wind movement in the MASP. The second EOF was 
                         considered the most important mode and was found to be related to 
                         the level of urbanization in the MASP, the release of heat stored 
                         in the urban canopy and the release of heat by anthropogenic 
                         sources, thus representing the UHI pattern in the MASP. In the 
                         S-mode, two modes of variability were found. The first EOF 
                         explained 49.4% of the total variance in the data, and the second 
                         explained 30.9%. In the S-mode, the first EOF represented the 
                         spatial pattern of the UHI and was similar to the second EOF in 
                         the T-mode. CA resulted in the identification of six homogeneous 
                         groups corresponding to the EOF patterns observed. The standard 
                         UHI according to the scale and annual seasons for the period from 
                         2002 to 2010 presented maximum values between 14:00 and 16:00 
                         local time (LT) and minimum values between 07:00 and 09:00 LT. 
                         Seasonal analysis revealed that spring had the highest maximum and 
                         minimum UHI values relative to the other seasons.",
                  doi = "10.3390/environments4020027",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/environments4020027",
                 issn = "2076-3298",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "environments-04-00027-v2.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"