author = "Albrecht, Rachel I. and Giangrande, Scott E. and Wang, Die and 
                         Morales, Carlos A. and Pereira, Rebeca F. O. and Machado, Luiz 
                         Augusto Toledo and Silva Dias, Maria A. F.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Brookhaven National 
                         Laboratory} and {Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {Universidade 
                         de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)}",
                title = "On the controls of deep convection and lightning in the Amazon",
            booktitle = "Proceedings...",
                 year = "2017",
         organization = "AGU Fall Meeting",
             abstract = "Local observations and remote sensing have been extensively used 
                         to unravel cloud distribution and life cycle but yet their 
                         representativeness in cloud resolve models (CRMs) and global 
                         climate models (GCMs) are still very poor. In addition, the 
                         complex cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions (CAPI), as well 
                         as thermodynamics, dynamics and large scale controls on convection 
                         have been the focus of many studies in the last two decades but 
                         still no final answer has been reached on the overall impacts of 
                         these interactions and controls on clouds, especially on deep 
                         convection. To understand the environmental and CAPI controls of 
                         deep convection, cloud electrification and lightning activity in 
                         the pristine region of Amazon basin, in this study we use long 
                         term satellite and field campaign measurements to depict the 
                         characteristics of deep convection and the relationships between 
                         lightning and convective fluxes in this region. Precipitation and 
                         lightning activity from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 
                         (TRMM) satellite are combined with estimates of aerosol 
                         concentrations and reanalysis data to delineate the overall 
                         controls on thunderstorms. A more detailed analysis is obtained 
                         studying these controls on the relationship between lightning 
                         activity and convective mass fluxes using radar wind profiler and 
                         3D total lightning during GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. We find 
                         evidences that the large scale conditions control the distribution 
                         of the precipitation, with widespread and more frequent mass 
                         fluxes of moderate intensity during the wet season, resulting in 
                         less vigorous convection and lower lightning activity. Under 
                         higher convective available potential energy, lightning is 
                         enhanced in polluted and background aerosol conditions. The 
                         relationships found in this study can be used in model 
                         parameterizations and ensemble evaluations of both lightning 
                         activity and lightning NOx from seasonal forecasting to climate 
                         projections and in a broader sense to Earth Climate System 
  conference-location = "New Orleans",
      conference-year = "11-15 Dec.",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"