author = "Moreira, Demerval S. and Longo, Karla Maria and Freitas, Saulo 
                         Ribeiro de and Yamasoe, Marcia A. and Mercado, Lina M. and 
                         Ros{\'a}rio, Nilton E. and Gloor, Emauel and Viana, Rosane S. M. 
                         and Miller, John B. and Gatti, Luciana Vanni and Wiedemann, Kenia 
                         T. and Domingues, Lucas K. Gatti and Correia, Caio C. S.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {University of Exeter} and {Universidade Federal de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (UNIFESP)} and {University of Leeds} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Vi{\c{c}}osa (UFV)} and {National 
                         Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of 
                         Arizona} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on 
                         carbon fluxes in the Amazon region",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "17",
               number = "23",
                pages = "14785--14810",
                month = "Dec.",
             abstract = "Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South 
                         America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central 
                         parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between 
                         August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the 
                         average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the 
                         fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is 
                         below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering 
                         and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale 
                         aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the 
                         surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse 
                         radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon 
                         rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the 
                         surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric 
                         model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 
                         fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of 
                         the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of 
                         the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our 
                         results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of 
                         about 27% in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10% in 
                         plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. 
                         Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net 
                         ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from C101 to 104 
                         TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the 
                         aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our 
                         results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on 
                         CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50-50% between the diffuse and 
                         direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and 
                         savanna (cerrado), as expected, the contribution of the diffuse 
                         radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase 
                         in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the 
                         Amazon during the dry season, in the presence of high biomass 
                         burning aerosol loads, changing from being a source to being a 
                         sink of CO2 to the atmosphere.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-17-14785-2017",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-14785-2017",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "moreira_modelling.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 jan. 2021"