author = "Barros, Diego and Takahashi, Hisao and Wrasse, Cristiano Max and 
                         Figueiredo, Cosme Alexandre Oliveira Barros",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles observed by TEC map 
                         based on ground-based GNSS receivers over South America",
              journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "36",
               number = "1",
                pages = "91--100",
                month = "jan.",
             keywords = "Ionosphere, equatorial ionosphere, ionospheric irregularities, 
                         meteorology and atmospheric dynamics, thermospheric dynamics.",
             abstract = "A ground-based network of GNSS receivers has been used to monitor 
                         equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) by mapping the total electron 
                         content (TEC map). The large coverage of the TEC map allowed us to 
                         monitor several EPBs simultaneously and get characteristics of the 
                         dynamics, extension and longitudinal distributions of the EPBs 
                         from the onset time until their disappearance. These 
                         characteristics were obtained by using TEC map analysis and the 
                         keogram technique. TEC map databases analyzed were for the period 
                         between November 2012 and January 2016. The zonal drift velocities 
                         of the EPBs showed a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 123 
                         ms(-1) at the Equator to 65ms(-1) for 35 degrees S latitude. 
                         Consequently, observed EPBs are inclined against the geomagnetic 
                         field lines. Both zonal drift velocity and the inclination of the 
                         EPBs were compared to the thermospheric neutral wind, which showed 
                         good agreement. Moreover, the large two-dimensional coverage of 
                         TEC maps allowed us to study periodic EPBs with a wide 
                         longitudinal distance. The averaged values observed for the 
                         inter-bubble distances also presented a clear latitudinal gradient 
                         varying from 920 km at the Equator to 640 km at 30 ffi S. The 
                         latitudinal gradient in the inter-bubble distances seems to be 
                         related to the difference in the zonal drift velocity of the EPB 
                         from the Equator to middle latitudes and to the difference in the 
                         westward movement of the terminator. On several occasions, the 
                         distances reached more than 2000 km. Inter-bubble distances 
                         greater than 1000 km have not been reported in the literature.",
                  doi = "10.5194/angeo-36-91-2018",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-91-2018",
                 issn = "0992-7689",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "barros_characteristics.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 jun. 2021"