author = "Hissa, Let{\'{\i}}cia de Barros Viana and M{\"u}ller, Hannes 
                         and Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra de and Hostert, Patrick and Lakes, 
          affiliation = "{Humboldt-Universit{\"a}t zu Berlin} and 
                         {Humboldt-Universit{\"a}t zu Berlin} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Humboldt-Universit{\"a}t zu 
                         Berlin} and {Humboldt-Universit{\"a}t zu Berlin}",
                title = "Historical carbon fluxes in the expanding deforestation frontier 
                         of Southern Brazilian Amazonia (1985–2012)",
              journal = "Regional Environmental Change",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "18",
               number = "1",
                pages = "77--89",
                month = "jan.",
             keywords = "Carbon book-keeping, Deforestation, Forest degradation, Edge 
                         effects, Dataset uncertainty, INPEEM, Landsat.",
             abstract = "In tropical areas, pioneer occupation fronts steer the rapid 
                         expansion of deforestation, contributing to carbon emissions. 
                         Up-to-date carbon emission estimates covering the long-term 
                         development of such frontiers depend on the availability of high 
                         spatialtemporal resolution data. In this paper, we provide a 
                         detailed assessment of carbon losses from deforestation and 
                         potential forest degradation from fragmentation for one expanding 
                         frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. We focused on one of the 
                         Amazonias hot-spots of forest loss, the BR-163 highway that 
                         connects the high productivity agricultural landscapes in Mato 
                         Grosso with the exporting harbors of the Amazon. We used 
                         multidecadal (19842012) Landsat-based time series on forested and 
                         non-forested area in combination with a carbon bookkeeping model. 
                         We show a 36% reduction in 1984s biomass carbon stocks, which led 
                         to the emission of 611.5 TgCO2 between 1985 and 1998 (43.6 TgCO2 
                         year-1 ) and 959.8 TgCO2 over 19992012 (68.5 TgCO2 year-1 ). 
                         Overall, fragmentation-related carbon losses represented 1.88% of 
                         total emissions by 2012, with an increasing relevance since 2004. 
                         We compared the Brazilian Space Agency deforestation assessment 
                         (PRODES) with our data and found that small deforestation polygons 
                         not captured by PRODES had increasing importance on estimated 
                         deforestation carbon losses since 2000. The comparative analysis 
                         improved the understanding of data-source-related uncertainties on 
                         carbon estimates and indicated disagreement areas between datasets 
                         that could be subject of future research. Furthermore, spatially 
                         explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the 
                         ones derived from this study are important for setting regional 
                         baselines for REDD? or similar payment for ecosystem services 
                  doi = "10.1007/s10113-016-1076-2",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-1076-2",
                 issn = "1436-3798 and 1436-378X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "hissa_historical.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "09 maio 2021"