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@Article{FanRZGLMMYWABBCFGGMPPPS:2018:SuCoPr,
               author = "Fan, Jiwen and Rosenfeld, Daniel and Zhang, Yuwei and Giangrande, 
                         Scott E. and Li, Zhanqing and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and 
                         Martin, Scot T. and Yang, Yan and Wang, Jian and Artaxo, Paulo and 
                         Barbosa, Henrique M. J. and Braga, Ramon Campos and Comstock, 
                         Jennifer M. and Feng, Zhe and Gao, Wenhua and Gomes, Helber B. and 
                         Mei, Fan and P{\"o}hlker, Christopher and P{\"o}hlker, Mira L. 
                         and P{\"o}schl, Ulrich and Souza, Rodrigo A. F. de",
          affiliation = "{Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and {Hebrew University of 
                         Jerusalem} and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and 
                         {Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {University of Maryland} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Harvard 
                         University} and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and 
                         {Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Pacific 
                         Northwest National Laboratory} and {Pacific Northwest National 
                         Laboratory} and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and 
                         {Univerisdade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL)} and {Pacific Northwest 
                         National Laboratory} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and 
                         {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)}",
                title = "Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine 
                         aerosol particles",
              journal = "Science",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "359",
               number = "6374",
                pages = "411--418",
                month = "jan.",
             abstract = "Aerosol-cloud interactions remain the largest uncertainty in 
                         climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles smaller than 50 
                         nanometers (UAP<50) can be abundant in the troposphere but are 
                         conventionally considered too small to affect cloud formation. 
                         Observational evidence and numerical simulations of deep 
                         convective clouds (DCCs) over the Amazon show that DCCs forming in 
                         a low-aerosol environment can develop very large vapor 
                         supersaturation because fast droplet coalescence reduces 
                         integrated droplet surface area and subsequent condensation. 
                         UAP<50 from pollution plumes that are ingested into such clouds 
                         can be activated to form additional cloud droplets on which excess 
                         supersaturation condenses and forms additional cloud water and 
                         latent heating, thus intensifying convective strength. This 
                         mechanism suggests a strong anthropogenic invigoration of DCCs in 
                         previously pristine regions of the world.",
                  doi = "10.1126/science.aan8461",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aan8461",
                 issn = "0036-8075",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "fan_substantial.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "03 dez. 2020"
}


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