author = "Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle and Cary, Lise and Cary, Paul and 
                         Bertrand, Guillaume and Giglio-Jacquemot, Armelle and Hirata, 
                         Ricardo and Aquilina, Luc and Alves, Lincoln Muniz and Martins, 
                         Veridiana and Melo, Ana Maria and Montenegro, Suzana and Chatton, 
                         Eliot and Franzen, Melissa and Aurouet, Axel and {The COQUEIRAL 
          affiliation = "BRGM, French Geological Survey and BRGM, French Geological Survey 
                         and CERIES, University of Lille and {Universidade Federal de 
                         Pernambuco (UFPE)} and CERIES, University of Lille and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universit{\'e} 
                         Rennes} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and CERIES, University of 
                         Lille and {Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)} and 
                         {Universit{\'e} Rennes} and CPRM, Brazilian Geological Survey and 
                title = "Multi-layered water resources, management, and uses under the 
                         impacts of global changes in a southern coastal metropolis: When 
                         will it be already too late? crossed analysis in Recife, NE 
              journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "618",
                pages = "645--657",
                month = "mar.",
             keywords = "Water resources management, Water governance, Societal relation to 
                         water, coastal aquifers, Recife, Brazil.",
             abstract = "Coastal water resources are a worldwide key socio-environmental 
                         issue considering the increasing concentration of population in 
                         these areas. Here, we propose an integrative transdisciplinary 
                         approach of water resource, water management and water access in 
                         Recife (NE Brazil). The present-day water situation is 
                         conceptualized as an imbricated multi-layered system: a 
                         multi-layered water resource, managed by a multi-layered 
                         governance system and used by a multi-layered social population. 
                         This allows identifying processes of quantitative, qualitative, 
                         and sanitary conflicts between governance and population 
                         strategies regarding water supply, as well as the institutional 
                         and individual denials of these conflicts. Based on this model, we 
                         anticipate future water-related problematic fates. Concerning the 
                         water resource system, the rapid groundwater level decrease due to 
                         unsustainable water predatory strategies, and the very low 
                         recharge rate have drastically modified the aquifer system 
                         functioning, inducing hydraulic connection between shallow 
                         groundwater (contaminated and locally salty) and deep ones (mostly 
                         fresh, with local inherited salinity), threatening the deep 
                         strategic water resource. Concerning the water governance system, 
                         the investments to increase the capacity storage of surface water, 
                         the water regulation agencies and the public/private partnership 
                         should shortly improve the water supply and wastewater issue. 
                         Nevertheless, the water situation will remain highly fragile due 
                         to the expected water demand increase, the precipitation decrease 
                         and the sea-level increase. Concerning the water access system, 
                         the population variably perceives these current and further 
                         effects and the possible mitigation policies, and develops 
                         alternative individual strategies. Authorities, policymakers and 
                         water managers will have to implement a well-balanced water 
                         governance, taking into account the specificities of the PPP, 
                         public and private groundwater users, and with a strong political 
                         willingness for a sustainable water management to ensure water 
                         supply for all the population. In other words, an anticipatory and 
                         integrated vision is necessary to reduce the discrepancies in this 
                         complex system.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.228",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.228",
                 issn = "0048-9697",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "13 jun. 2021"