author = "Dasari, Hari Prasad and Langodan, Sabique and Viswanadhapalli, 
                         Yesubabu and Rao, Vadlamudi Brahmananda and Papadopoulos, Vassilis 
                         P. and Hoteit, Ibrahim",
          affiliation = "{King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)} and 
                         {King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)} and 
                         Weather and Climate Research Group, National Atmospheric Research 
                         Laboratory and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Hellenic Centre for Marine Research} and {King Abdullah 
                         University of Science and Technology (KAUST)}",
                title = "ENSO influence on the interannual variability of the Red Sea 
                         convergence zone and associated rainfall",
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "38",
               number = "2",
                pages = "761--775",
             keywords = "Red Sea convergence zone, Red Sea trough, ENSO, rainfall, moisture 
             abstract = ": The Red Sea convergence zone (RSCZ) is formed by opposite 
                         surface winds blowing from northwest to southeast directions at 
                         around 18\∘ 19\∘N between October and January. A 
                         reverse-oriented, low-level monsoon trough at 850 hPa, known as 
                         the Red Sea trough (RST), transfers moisture from the southern Red 
                         Sea to RSCZ. The positions of the RSCZ and RST and the intensity 
                         of the RST have been identified as important factors in modulating 
                         weather and climatic conditions across the Middle East. Here, we 
                         investigate the influence of the El Niņo southern oscillation 
                         (ENSO) on the interannual variability of RSCZ, RST, and regional 
                         rainfall during winter months. Our results indicate that El Niņo 
                         (warm ENSO phase) favours a shift of the RSCZ to the north and a 
                         strengthening of the RST in the same direction. Conversely, during 
                         November and December of La Niņa periods (cold ENSO phase), the 
                         RSCZ shift to the south and the RST strengthens in the same 
                         direction. During El Niņo periods, southeasterly wind speeds 
                         increase (2030%) over the southern Red Sea and northwesterly wind 
                         speeds decrease (1015%) over the northern Red Sea. Noticeable 
                         increases in the number of rainy days and the intensity of rain 
                         events are observed during El Niņo phases. These increases are 
                         associated with colder than normal air intrusion at lower levels 
                         from the north combined with warm air intrusion from the south 
                         over the RSCZ. Our analysis suggests that during El Niņo winters, 
                         warmer sea surface temperatures and higher convective instability 
                         over the Red Sea favour local storms conditions and increase 
                         rainfall over the Red Sea and adjoining regions.",
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.5208",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.5208",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTIC-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "dasari_enso.compressed.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "09 maio 2021"