author = "Old, L. and Wojtak, R. and Pearce, F. R. and Gray, M. E. and 
                         Mamon, G. A. and Sif{\'o}n, C. and Tempel, E. and Biviano, A. and 
                         Yee, H. K. C. and Carvalho, Reinaldo Ramos de and M{\"u}ller, V. 
                         and Sepp, T. and Skibba, R. A. and Croton, D. and Bamford, S. P. 
                         and Power, C. and von der Linden, A. and Saro, A.",
          affiliation = "{University of Toronto} and {Stanford University} and {University 
                         of Nottingham} and {University of Nottingham} and {Sorbonne 
                         Universit{\'e}s} and {Princeton University} and {Leibniz-Institut 
                         f{\"u}r Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP)} and {INAF-Osservatorio 
                         Astronomico di Trieste} and {University of Toronto} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Leibniz-Institut 
                         f{\"u}r Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP)} and {Tartu Observatory} and 
                         {University of California} and {Swinburne University of 
                         Technology} and {University of Nottingham} and {University of 
                         Western Australia} and {Stony Brook University} and 
                         {INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste}",
                title = "Galaxy cluster mass reconstruction project - III: the impact of 
                         dynamical substructure on cluster mass estimates",
              journal = "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "475",
               number = "1",
                pages = "853--866",
             keywords = "Cosmological parameters, Galaxies: Clusters: General, Galaxies: 
                         Groups: General, Galaxies: Haloes, Galaxies: Kinematics and 
                         dynamics, Large-scale structure of Universe.",
             abstract = "With the advent of wide-field cosmological surveys, we are 
                         approaching samples of hundreds of thousands of galaxy clusters. 
                         While such large numbers will help reduce statistical 
                         uncertainties, the control of systematics in cluster masses is 
                         crucial. Here we examine the effects of an important source of 
                         systematic uncertainty in galaxy-based cluster mass estimation 
                         techniques: the presence of significant dynamical substructure. 
                         Dynamical substructure manifests as dynamically distinct subgroups 
                         in phase-space, indicating an 'unrelaxed' state. This issue 
                         affects around a quarter of clusters in a generally selected 
                         sample. We employ a set of mock clusters whose masses have been 
                         measured homogeneously with commonly used galaxy-based mass 
                         estimation techniques (kinematic, richness, caustic, radial 
                         methods). We use these to study how the relation between 
                         observationally estimated and true cluster mass depends on the 
                         presence of substructure, as identified by various popular 
                         diagnostics.We find that the scatter for an ensemble of clusters 
                         does not increase dramatically for clusters with dynamical 
                         substructure. However, we find a systematic bias for all methods, 
                         such that clusters with significant substructure have higher 
                         measured masses than their relaxed counterparts. This bias depends 
                         on cluster mass: the most massive clusters are largely unaffected 
                         by the presence of significant substructure, but masses are 
                         significantly overestimated for lower mass clusters, by ~10 per 
                         cent at 1014 and \≳20 per cent for \≲1013.5. The use 
                         of cluster samples with different levels of substructure can 
                         therefore bias certain cosmological parameters up to a level 
                         comparable to the typical uncertainties in current cosmological 
                  doi = "10.1093/mnras/stx3241",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx3241",
                 issn = "0035-8711 and 1365-2966",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTIC-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "11 maio 2021"