author = "Foltzº, G. R. and Brandt, P. and Richter, I. and 
                         Rodriguez-fonseca, B. and Hernandez, F. and Dengler, M. and 
                         Rodrigues, R. R. and Schmidt, J. O. and Yu, L. and Lefevre, N. and 
                         Da Cunha, L. C. and McPhaden, M. J. and Araujo Filho, M. C. and 
                         Karstensen, J. and Hahn, J. and Mart{\'{\i}}n-Rey, M. and 
                         Patricola, C. M. and Poli, P. and Zuidema, P. and Hummels, R. and 
                         Perez, R. C. and Hatje, V. and Luebbecke, J. and Polo, I. and 
                         Lumpkin, R. and Bourl{\`e}s, B. and Asuquo, F. E. and Lehodey, P. 
                         and Conchon, A. and Chang, P. and Dandin, P. and Schmid, C. and 
                         Sutton, A. J. and Giordani, H. and Xue, Y. and Illig, S. and 
                         Losada, T. and Grodsky, S. and Gasparin, F. and Lee, T. and 
                         Mohino, E. and Nobre, Paulo and Wanninkhof, R. and Keenlyside, N. 
                         S. and Garcon, V. and Sanchez-Gomez, E. and Nnamchi, H. C. and 
                         Drevillon, M. and Storto, A. and Remy, E. and Lazar, A. and 
                         Speich, S. and Goes, M. P. and Dorrington, T. and Johns, W. E. and 
                         Moum, J. N. and Robinson, C. and Perruche, C. and Souza, R. B. and 
                         Gaye, A. and Lopez-Parages, J. and Monerie, P. -A. and 
                         Castellanos, P. and Benson, N. U. and Hounkonnou, M. N. and Duha, 
                         J. T.",
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                title = "The tropical atlantic observing system",
              journal = "Frontiers in Marine Science",
                 year = "2019",
               volume = "6",
             abstract = "The tropical Atlantic is home to multiple coupled climate 
                         variations covering a wide range of timescales and impacting 
                         societally relevant phenomena such as continental rainfall, 
                         Atlantic hurricane activity, oceanic biological productivity, and 
                         atmospheric circulation in the equatorial Pacific. The tropical 
                         Atlantic also connects the southern and northern branches of the 
                         Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and receives 
                         freshwater input from some of the world's largest rivers. To 
                         address these diverse, unique, and interconnected research 
                         challenges, a rich network of ocean observations has developed, 
                         building on the backbone of the Prediction and Research Moored 
                         Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). This network has evolved 
                         naturally over time and out of necessity in order to address the 
                         most important outstanding scientific questions and to improve 
                         predictions of tropical Atlantic severe weather and global climate 
                         variability and change. The tropical Atlantic observing system is 
                         motivated by goals to understand and better predict phenomena such 
                         as tropical Atlantic interannual to decadal variability and 
                         climate change; multidecadal variability and its links to the 
                         meridional overturning circulation; air-sea fluxes of CO2 and 
                         their implications for the fate of anthropogenic CO2; the Amazon 
                         River plume and its interactions with biogeochemistry, vertical 
                         mixing, and hurricanes; the highly productive eastern boundary and 
                         equatorial upwelling systems; and oceanic oxygen minimum zones, 
                         their impacts on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems, and 
                         their feedbacks to climate. Past success of the tropical Atlantic 
                         observing system is the result of an international commitment to 
                         sustained observations and scientific cooperation, a willingness 
                         to evolve with changing research and monitoring needs, and a 
                         desire to share data openly with the scientific community and 
                         operational centers. The observing system must continue to evolve 
                         in order to meet an expanding set of research priorities and 
                         operational challenges. This paper discusses the tropical Atlantic 
                         observing system, including emerging scientific questions that 
                         demand sustained ocean observations, the potential for further 
                         integration of the observing system, and the requirements for 
                         sustaining and enhancing the tropical Atlantic observing system. © 
                         2019 Foltz, Brandt, Richter, Rodriguez-fonseca, Hernandez, 
                         Dengler, Rodrigues, Schmidt, Yu, Lefevre, Cotrim Da Cunha, 
                         McPhaden, Araujo Filho, Karstensen, Hahn, Mart{\'{\i}}n-Rey, 
                         Patricola, Poli, Zuidema, Hummels, Perez, Hatje, Luebbecke, Polo, 
                         Lumpkin, Bourl{\`e}s, Asuquo, Lehodey, Conchon, Chang, Dandin, 
                         Schmid, Sutton, Giordani, Xue, Illig, Losada, Grodsky, Gasparin, 
                         Lee, Mohino, Nobre, Wanninkhof, Keenlyside, Garcon, Sanchez-Gomez, 
                         Nnamchi, Drevillon, Storto, Remy, Lazar, Speich, Goes, Dorrington, 
                         Johns, Moum, Robinson, Perruche, Souza, Gaye, Lopez-Parages, 
                         Monerie, Castellanos, Benson, Hounkonnou and Duha.",
                  doi = "10.3389/fmars.2019.00206",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00206",
                 issn = "2296-7745",
                label = "isi 2019-05-03 
             language = "en",
                  url = "https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85064682160\&doi=10.3389%2ffmars.2019.00206\&partnerID=40\&md5=21010bde25b17e41273e2d3ad3512f3f",
        urlaccessdate = "19 abr. 2021"