author = "Barros, D. and Takahashi, Hisao and Wrasse, Cristiano Max and 
                         Figueiredo, Cosme Alexandre Oliveira Barros and Carrasco, A. J. 
                         and Inoue J{\'u}nior, Marcos Hideki",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and ULA and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Characteristics of Equatorial Plasma bubbles observed by TEC map 
                         over South America and numerical simulation of its development",
                 year = "2018",
         organization = "Latin American Conference on Space Geophysics, 11. (COLAGE)",
             abstract = "Ground-based network of GNSS receivers have been used to monitor 
                         Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) by mapping the Total Electron 
                         Content (TEC map). Large coverage of the TEC map allowed us to 
                         monitor several EPBs simultaneously and get characteristics of the 
                         dynamics, extension and longitudinal distributions of the EPBs 
                         from the onset time until their disappearance. These 
                         characteristics were obtained by using TEC map analysis and 
                         keogram technique by using the data obtained during the period 
                         between November/2012 and January/2016. The zonal drift velocities 
                         of the EPBs showed a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 123 
                         m/s at the equator to 65 m/s for 35\◦S of latitude. 
                         Consequently, observed EPBs are inclined against the geomagnetic 
                         field lines. Both zonal drift velocity and the inclination of the 
                         EPBs were compared with the thermospheric neutral wind, which 
                         showed a good agreement. Moreover, large coverage of TEC maps 
                         permit to study periodic EPBs with a wide longitudinal distance. 
                         This averaged values observed for the inter-bubbles distances also 
                         presented a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 920 km at the 
                         equator to 640 km at 30\◦S. On several occasions, the 
                         distances reached more than 2000 km. Inter-bubbles distances 
                         greater than 1000 km have not been reported in literature. 
                         Numerical model calculations, using different latitudinal 
                         gradients in zonal wind, showed a good agreement with the 
                         latitudinal gradient in the EPBs zonal drift observed by TEC map. 
                         Comparison of the observational results with the theoretical model 
                         calculations confirms that the EPB inclination against the 
                         geomagnetic field lines and the latitudinal gradient of 
                         inter-bubbles distances were originated due to a latitudinal 
                         gradient in the EPBs zonal drift.",
  conference-location = "Buenos Aires, Argentina",
      conference-year = "16-20 abr.",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "19 jan. 2021"