author = "Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali and Nogueira, Paulo Alexandre Bronzato and 
                         Santos, Angela Machado dos and Souza, Jonas Rodrigues de and 
                         Batista, Inez Staciarini and Sobral, Jos{\'e} Humberto Andrade",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                title = "Impact of disturbance electric fields in the evening on 
                         prereversal vertical drift and spread F developments in the 
                         equatorial ionosphere",
              journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "36",
               number = "2",
                pages = "609--620",
                month = "Apr.",
             keywords = "Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities).",
             abstract = "Equatorial plasma bubble/spread F irregularity occurrence can 
                         present large variability depending upon the intensity of the 
                         evening prereversal enhancement in the zonal electric field (PRE), 
                         that is, the F region vertical plasma drift, which basically 
                         drives the post-sunset irregularity development. Forcing from 
                         magnetospheric disturbances is an important source of modification 
                         and variability in the PRE vertical drift and of the associated 
                         bubble development. Although the roles of magnetospheric 
                         disturbance time penetration electric fields in the bubble 
                         irregularity development have been studied in the literature, many 
                         details regarding the nature of the interaction between the 
                         penetration electric fields and the PRE vertical drift still lack 
                         our understanding. In this paper we have analyzed data on F layer 
                         heights and vertical drifts obtained from digisondes operated in 
                         Brazil to investigate the connection between magnetic disturbances 
                         occurring during and preceding sunset and the consequent 
                         variabilities in the PRE vertical drift and associated equatorial 
                         spread F (ESF) development. The impact of the prompt penetration 
                         under-shielding eastward electric field and that of the 
                         over-shielding, and disturbance dynamo, westward electric field on 
                         the evolution of the evening PRE vertical drift and thereby on the 
                         ESF development are briefly examined.",
                  doi = "10.5194/angeo-36-609-2018",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-609-2018",
                 issn = "0992-7689",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "abdu_impact.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"