author = "Lima, Alexandra Amaro de and Andreoli, Rita Val{\'e}ria and 
                         Kayano, Mary Toshie",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and 
                         {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Sub-monthly variability of the South American summer precipitation 
                         under El Niño and La Niña backgrounds during the 1998–2012 
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "38",
               number = "5",
                pages = "2153--2166",
                month = "Apr.",
             keywords = "sub-monthly intra-seasonal variability, inter-annual variability, 
                         precipitation, South America, Rossby wave.",
             abstract = "The sub-monthly intra-seasonal 824-day period (SIS8-24) timescale 
                         variability of the summer (1 November to 31 March) rainfall over 
                         South America (SA) under distinct inter-annual (IA) backgrounds 
                         was analysed using the Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM) 
                         based daily total precipitation data for the 19982012 period. The 
                         IA backgrounds refer to the El Niño (EN) and La Niña (LN) years. 
                         First, the summer daily precipitation anomaly fields were subject 
                         to the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. Using the 
                         first and the second principal component time series filtered at 
                         the SIS8-24 timescale, positive and negative events were selected. 
                         The first SIS8-24 mode features a precipitation anomaly dipole 
                         with centres over southeastern SA (SESA) and central and eastern 
                         tropical SA both extending southeastwards into the adjacent 
                         Atlantic Ocean. The second mode features a precipitation anomaly 
                         pattern similar to that previously documented for the oceanic 
                         South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). The SIS8-24 precipitation 
                         anomaly patterns for the positive (negative) events show 
                         differences in the anomaly intensities between EN and LN years, 
                         but with almost the same locations of the anomaly centres. These 
                         differences result from the variability inter-SIS8-24 events, as 
                         indicated by the distinct paths of the SIS8-24 Rossby wave train 
                         patterns in the subtropics, although they are regionally locked 
                         over tropical SA. The relation between the SIS8-24 and IA 
                         variabilities might occur through variations in the Rossby wave 
                         train patterns. The Rossby wave trains of both timescales, 
                         depending on their phases, reinforce or weaken the rainfall 
                         anomalies over SA, in such a way that the rainfall anomalies over 
                         SA show similar patterns but with distinct magnitudes for EN and 
                         LN composites. The South American precipitation responses to the 
                         combined SIS8-24 and IA variability timescales stratified 
                         according to the IA backgrounds have not been studied before and 
                         might be useful for operational forecasting services.",
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.5430",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.5430",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "lima_sub.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 abr. 2021"