author = "Hodgson, Amy K. and Morgan, William T. and O’Shea, Sebastian and 
                         Bauguitte, St{\'e}phane and Allan, James D. and Darbyshire, 
                         Eoghan and Flynn, Michael J. and Liu, Dantong and Lee, James and 
                         Johnson, Ben and Haywood, Jim M. and Longo, Karla Maria and 
                         Artaxo, Paulo E. and Coe, Hugh",
          affiliation = "{University of Manchester} and {University of Manchester} and 
                         {University of Manchester} and {Cranfield University} and 
                         {University of Manchester} and {University of Manchester} and 
                         {University of Manchester} and {University of Manchester} and 
                         {University of York} and {Met Office} and {University of Exeter} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {University of 
                title = "Near-field emission profiling of tropical forest and Cerrado fires 
                         in Brazil during SAMBBA 2012",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "18",
               number = "8",
                pages = "5619--5638",
                month = "Apr.",
             abstract = "We profile trace gas and particulate emissions from near-field 
                         airborne measurements of discrete smoke plumes in Brazil during 
                         the 2012 biomass burning season. The South American Biomass 
                         Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) Project conducted during September and 
                         October 2012 sampled across two distinct fire regimes prevalent in 
                         the Amazon Basin. Combined measurements from a Compact 
                         Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) and a Single 
                         Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) are reported for the first time in 
                         a tropical biomass burning environment. Emissions from a mostly 
                         smouldering tropical forest wildfire in Rond{\^o}nia state and 
                         numerous smaller flaming Cerrado fires in Tocantins state are 
                         presented. While the Cerrado fires appear to be representative of 
                         typical fire conditions in the existing literature, the tropical 
                         forest wildfire likely represents a more extreme example of 
                         biomass burning with a bias towards mostly smouldering emissions. 
                         We determined fire-integrated modified combustion efficiencies, 
                         emission ratios and emission factors for trace gas and particulate 
                         components for these two fire types, alongside aerosol 
                         microphysical properties. Seven times more black carbon was 
                         emitted from the Cerrado fires per unit of fuel combustion (EFBC 
                         of 0.13±0.04\ĝg\ĝkg-1) compared to the tropical forest 
                         fire (EFBC of 0.019±0.006g\ĝkg-1), and more than 6 times the 
                         amount of organic aerosol was emitted from the tropical forest 
                         fire per unit of fuel combustion (EFOM of 8.00±2.53g\ĝkg-1, 
                         EFOC of 5.00±1.58g\ĝkg-1) compared to the Cerrado fires 
                         (EFOM of 1.31±0.42g\ĝkg-1, EFOC of 0.82±0.26g\ĝkg-1). 
                         <br><br> Particulate-phase species emitted from the fires sampled 
                         are generally lower than those reported in previous studies and in 
                         emission inventories, which is likely a combination of differences 
                         in fire combustion efficiency and fuel mixture, along with 
                         different measurement techniques. Previous modelling studies 
                         focussed on the biomass burning season in tropical South America 
                         have required significant scaling up of emissions to reproduce in 
                         situ and satellite aerosol concentrations over the region. Our 
                         results do not indicate that emission factors used in inventories 
                         are biased low, which could be one potential cause of the reported 
                         underestimates in modelling studies. This study supplements and 
                         updates trace gas and particulate emission factors for 
                         fire-type-specific biomass burning in Brazil for use in weather 
                         and climate models. The study illustrates that initial fire 
                         conditions can result in substantial differences in terms of their 
                         emitted chemical components, which can potentially perturb the 
                         Earth system.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-18-5619-2018",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-5619-2018",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "hodgson_near.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jul. 2021"