author = "Gerken, Tobias and Ruddell, Benjamin L. and Fuentes, Jose D. and 
                         Ara{\'u}jo, Alessandro and Brunsell, Nathaniel A. and Maia, Jair 
                         and Manzi, Antonio and Mercer, Juliane and Santos, Rosa Nascimento 
                         dos and Von Randow, Celso and Stoy, Paul C.",
          affiliation = "{Montana State University} and {Northern Arizona University} and 
                         {The Pennsylvania State University} and {Embrapa Amaz{\^o}nia 
                         Oriental} and {University of Kansas} and {Universidade do Estado 
                         do Amazonas (UEA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Montana State University} and 
                         {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Montana State University}",
                title = "Investigating the mechanisms responsible for the lack of surface 
                         energy balance closure in a central Amazonian tropical 
              journal = "Agricultural and Forest Meteorology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "255",
                pages = "92--103",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "Eddy covariance, Information flow, Latent heat flux, Sensible heat 
                         flux, Tropical rainforest.",
             abstract = "This work investigates the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the 
                         energy balance residual (E) that results from the observed 
                         difference between available energy and the turbulent fluxes of 
                         sensible heat (H) and latent heat (LE) at the FLUXNET BR-Ma2 site 
                         located in the Brazilian central Amazon rainforest. The behavior 
                         of E is analyzed by extending the eddy covariance averaging length 
                         from 30 min to 4 h and by applying an Information Flow Dynamical 
                         Process Network to diagnose processes and conditions affecting E 
                         across different seasons. Results show that the seasonal turbulent 
                         flux dynamics and the Bowen ratio are primarily driven by net 
                         radiation (Rn), with substantial sub-seasonal variability. The 
                         Bowen ratio increased from 0.25 in April to 0.4 at the end of 
                         September. Extension of the averaging length from 0.5 (94.6% 
                         closure) to 4 h and thus inclusion of longer timescale eddies and 
                         mesoscale processes closes the energy balance and lead to an 
                         increase in the Bowen ratio, thus highlighting the importance of 
                         additional H to E. Information flow analysis reveals that the 
                         components of the energy balance explain between 25 and 40% of the 
                         total Shannon entropy with higher values during the wet season 
                         than the dry season. Dry season information flow from the buoyancy 
                         flux to E are 3050% larger than that from H, indicating the 
                         potential importance of buoyancy fluxes to closing E. While the 
                         low closure highlights additional sources not captured in the flux 
                         data and random measurement errors contributing to E, the findings 
                         of the information flow and averaging length analysis are 
                         consistent with the impact of mesoscale circulations, which tend 
                         to transport more H than LE, on the lack of closure.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.03.023",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.03.023",
                 issn = "0168-1923",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "gerken_investigating.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "11 maio 2021"