author = "Balan, Nalan and Souza, Jonas Rodrigues de and Bailey, G. J.",
          affiliation = "{University of Sheffield} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of Sheffield}",
                title = "Recent developments in the understanding of equatorial ionization 
                         anomaly: a review",
              journal = "Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "171",
                pages = "3--11",
                month = "June",
             keywords = "Review, Recent developments, Equatorial ionization anomaly, Quiet 
                         and active conditions, Super plasma fountain, Strong anomaly.",
             abstract = "A brief review of the recent developments in the understanding of 
                         the equatorial plasma fountain (EPF) and equatorial ionization 
                         anomaly (EIA) under quiet and active conditions is presented. It 
                         is clarified that (1) the EPF is not upward ExB plasma drift at 
                         the equator followed by downward plasma diffusion, but it is field 
                         perpendicular ExB plasma drift and field-aligned plasma diffusion 
                         acting together all along the field lines at all altitudes and 
                         plasma flowing in the direction of the resultant. (2) The EIA is 
                         formed not from the accumulation of plasma at the crests but 
                         mainly from the removal of plasma from around the equator by the 
                         upward ExB drift with small accumulations when the crests are 
                         within approximately 20 magnetic latitude. The accumulations 
                         reduce with increasing latitude and become zero by approximately 
                         25. (3) An asymmetric neutral wind makes EPF and EIA asymmetric 
                         with stronger fountain and stronger crest usually occurring in 
                         opposite hemispheres especially at equinoxes when winter anomaly 
                         is absent. (4) During the early stages of daytime main phase of 
                         major geomagnetic storms, the plasma fountain becomes a super 
                         fountain and the EIA becomes strong not due to the eastward prompt 
                         penetration electric field (PPEF) alone but due to the combined 
                         effect of eastward PPEF and storm-time equatorward winds (SEW). 
                         (5) During the later stages of the storms when EIA gets inhibited 
                         a peak sometimes occurs around the equator not due to westward 
                         electric fields but mainly due to the convergence of plasma from 
                         both hemispheres due to SEW.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.jastp.2017.06.020",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2017.06.020",
                 issn = "1364-6826",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "balan_recent.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"