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@Article{MachadoCBGDCAAAABBBEFFFJMPPPRRSSTWW:2018:PrChSe,
               author = "Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Calheiros, Alan James Peixoto and 
                         Biscaro, Thiago Souza and Giangrande, Scott and Dias, Maria A. F. 
                         Silva and Cecchini, Micael A. and Albrecht, Rachel and Andreae, 
                         Meinrat O. and Araujo, Wagner F. and Artaxo, Paulo and Borrmann, 
                         Stephan and Braga, Ramon and Burleyson, Casey and Eichholz, 
                         Cristiano Wickboldt and Fan, Jiwen and Feng, Zhe and Fisch, 
                         Gilberto F. and Jensen, Michael P. and Martin, Scot T. and 
                         P{\"o}schl, Ulrich and P{\"o}hlker, Christopher and 
                         P{\"o}hlker, Mira L. and Ribaud, Jean-Fran{\c{c}}ois and 
                         Rosenfeld, Daniel and Saraiva, Jaci M. B. and Schumacher, Courtney 
                         and Thalman, Ryan and Walter, David and Wendisch, Manfred",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Brookhaven National Laboratory} 
                         and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Pacific Northwest 
                         National Laboratory} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and 
                         {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and {Department of 
                         Aerospace Science and Technology} and {Brookhaven National 
                         Laboratory} and {Harvard University} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Max 
                         Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Hebrew University of Jerusalem} 
                         and {Amazon Protection System (SIPAM)} and {Texas A \& M 
                         University} and {Snow College} and {Max Planck Institute for 
                         Chemistry} and {Leipzig University}",
                title = "Overview: Precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to 
                         environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and 
                         ACRIDICON-CHUVA",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "18",
               number = "9",
                pages = "6461--6482",
                month = "May",
             abstract = "This study provides an overview of precipitation processes and 
                         their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central 
                         Amazon Basin near Manaus during the GoAmazon2014/5 and 
                         ACRIDICON-CHUVA experiments. This study takes advantage of the 
                         numerous measurement platforms and instrument systems operating 
                         during both campaigns to sample cloud structure and environmental 
                         conditions during 2014 and 2015; the rainfall variability among 
                         seasons, aerosol loading, land surface type, and topography has 
                         been carefully characterized using these data. Differences between 
                         the wet and dry seasons were examined from a variety of 
                         perspectives. The rainfall rates distribution, total amount of 
                         rainfall, and raindrop size distribution (the mass-weighted mean 
                         diameter) were quantified over both seasons. The dry season 
                         generally exhibited higher rainfall rates than the wet season and 
                         included more intense rainfall periods. However, the cumulative 
                         rainfall during the wet season was 4 times greater than that 
                         during the total dry season rainfall, as shown in the total 
                         rainfall accumulation data. The typical size and life cycle of 
                         Amazon cloud clusters (observed by satellite) and rain cells 
                         (observed by radar) were examined, as were differences in these 
                         systems between the seasons. Moreover, monthly mean thermodynamic 
                         and dynamic variables were analysed using radiosondes to elucidate 
                         the differences in rainfall characteristics during the wet and dry 
                         seasons. The sensitivity of rainfall to atmospheric aerosol 
                         loading was discussed with regard to mass-weighted mean diameter 
                         and rain rate. This topic was evaluated only dur- ing the wet 
                         season due to the insignificant statistics of rainfall events for 
                         different aerosol loading ranges and the low frequency of 
                         precipitation events during the dry season. The impacts of 
                         aerosols on cloud droplet diameter varied based on droplet size. 
                         For the wet season, we observed no dependence between land surface 
                         type and rain rate. However, during the dry season, urban areas 
                         exhibited the largest rainfall rate tail distribution, and 
                         deforested regions exhibited the lowest mean rainfall rate. 
                         Airplane measurements were taken to characterize and contrast 
                         cloud microphysical properties and processes over forested and 
                         deforested regions. Vertical motion was not correlated with cloud 
                         droplet sizes, but cloud droplet concentration correlated linearly 
                         with vertical motion. Clouds over forested areas contained larger 
                         droplets than clouds over pastures at all altitudes. Finally, the 
                         connections between topography and rain rate were evaluated, with 
                         higher rainfall rates identified at higher elevations during the 
                         dry season.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-18-6461-2018",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-6461-2018",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "machado_overview.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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