author = "Pereira, Jonas P. and Coelho, Jaziel Goulart and Lima, Rafael C. 
                         R. de",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade do Estado de Santa 
                         Catarina (UDESC)}",
                title = "Born–Infeld magnetars: larger than classical toroidal magnetic 
                         fields and implications for gravitational-wave astronomy",
              journal = "European Physical Journal C",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "78",
               number = "5",
                pages = "e361",
                month = "May",
             abstract = "Magnetars are neutron stars presenting bursts and outbursts of X- 
                         and soft-gamma rays that can be understood with the presence of 
                         very large magnetic fields. In this setting, nonlinear 
                         electrodynamics should be taken into account for a more accurate 
                         description of such compact systems. We study that in the context 
                         of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and make a realization of our 
                         analysis to the case of the well known Born-Infeld (BI) 
                         electromagnetism in order to come up with some of its 
                         astrophysical consequences. We focus here on toroidal magnetic 
                         fields as motivated by already known magnetars with low dipolar 
                         magnetic fields and their expected relevance in highly magnetized 
                         stars. We show that BI electrodynamics leads to larger toroidal 
                         magnetic fields when compared to Maxwell's electrodynamics. Hence, 
                         one should expect higher production of gravitational waves (GWs) 
                         and even more energetic giant flares from nonlinear stars. Given 
                         current constraints on BI's scale field, giant flare energetics 
                         and magnetic fields in magnetars, we also find that the maximum 
                         magnitude of magnetar ellipticities should be 10(-6)-10(-5) . 
                         Besides, BI electrodynamics may lead to a maximum increase of 
                         order 10-20% of the GW energy radiated from a magnetar when 
                         compared to Maxwell's, while much larger percentages may arise for 
                         other physically motivated scenarios. Thus, nonlinear theories of 
                         the electromagnetism might also be probed in the near future with 
                         the improvement of GW detectors.",
                  doi = "10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-5849-2",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-5849-2",
                 issn = "1434-6044",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "pereira_born.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"