author = "Teixeira, Paulo Ricardo and Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro de and Correia, 
                         Francis Wagner and Manzi, Antonio Ocimar",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and 
                         {NASA Goddard Space Flight Center} and {Universidade Estadual da 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia (UEA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "MOVEIM v1.0: development of a bottom-up motor vehicular emission 
                         inventories for the urban area of Manaus in central Amazon 
              journal = "Geoscientific Model Development Discussions",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "81",
             keywords = "Vehicle emission inventories, bottom-up approach, urban air 
                         pollution, Amazon forest.",
             abstract = "Emissions of gases and particulates in urban areas are associated 
                         with a mixture of various sources , both natural and 
                         anthropogenic. Understanding and quantifying these emissions is 
                         necessary in studies of climate change, local air pollution issues 
                         and weather modification. Studies have highlighted that the 
                         transport sector is key to closing the worlds emissions gap. 
                         Vehicles contribute substantially with the emission of carbon 
                         dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), 
                         nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC), particulate matter (PM), methane 
                         (CH4), hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Several 
                         studies show that vehicle emission inventories are an important 
                         approach to providing a baseline estimate of on-road emissions in 
                         several scales, mainly in urban areas. This approach is essential 
                         to areas with incomplete or non-existent monitoring networks as 
                         well as for air quality models. Conversely, the direct downscale 
                         of global emission inventories in chemical transport and air 
                         quality models may not be able to reproduce the observed evolution 
                         of atmospheric pollution processes at finer spatial scales. To 
                         address this caveat, we developed a bottom-up vehicular emission 
                         inventory along the 258 main traffic routes from Manaus, based on 
                         local vehicle fleet data and emission factors (EFs). The results 
                         show that the light vehicles are responsible for the largest 
                         fraction of the pollutants, contributing 2.6, 0.87, 0.32, 0.03, 
                         456 and 0.8 ton/h of CO, NOx, CH4, PM, CO2 and NMHC, respectively. 
                         Including the emissions of motorcycles, buses and trucks, our 
                         total estimation of the emissions is 4.1, 1.0, 0.37, 0.07, 63.5 
                         and 2.56 ton/h, respectively. We also noted that light vehicles 
                         accounted for about 62.8%, 84.7%, 87.9%, 45.1%, 71.8%, and 33.9% 
                         and motorcycles in the order of 32.3 %, 6.5 %, 12.1 %, 6.2 %, 14.8 
                         %, 8.7 %, respectively. Nevertheless, we can highlight the bus 
                         emissions which are around 35.7% and 45.3 % for NMHC and PM. Our 
                         results indicate a better distribution over the domain reflecting 
                         the influences of standard behavior of traffic distribution per 
                         vehicle category. Finally, this inventory provides more detailed 
                         information to improving the current understanding of how vehicle 
                         emissions contribute to the ambient pollutant concentrations in 
                         Manaus and their impacts on regional climate changes. This work 
                         will also contribute to improved air quality numerical 
                         simulations, provide more accurate scenarios for policymakers and 
                         regulatory agencies to develop strategies for controlling the 
                         vehicular emissions, and, consequently, mitigate associated 
                         impacts on local and regional scales of the Amazon ecosystems.",
                  doi = "10.5194/gmd-2018-81",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-81",
                 issn = "1991-962X and 1991-9611",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "teixeira_moveim.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 abr. 2021"