author = "Jiang, Xiandie and Lu, Dengsheng and Moran, Emilio and Calvi, 
                         Miqu{\'e}ias Freitas and Dutra, Luciano Vieira and Li, Guiying",
          affiliation = "{Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University} and {Zhejiang 
                         Agriculture and Forestry University} and {Michigan State 
                         University} and {Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Fujian 
                         Normal University}",
                title = "Examining impacts of the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam construction 
                         on land-cover changes using multitemporal Landsat imagery",
              journal = "Applied Geography",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "97",
                pages = "35--47",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "Belo Monte hydroelectric dam, Land-cover change, Impacts of dam 
                         construction, Post-classification comparison, Multitemporal 
                         Landsat imagery.",
             abstract = "Many hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon have been 
                         constructed, but how dam construction influences land-cover change 
                         has not been fully examined. For our research, we selected Belo 
                         Monte hydroelectric dam, the third-largest dam in the world, to 
                         explore its impacts on major land-cover change. Multitemporal 
                         Landsat images between 2006 and 2017 were used. The maximum 
                         likelihood classifier was used to classify these Landsat images 
                         into primary forest, secondary forest, agropasture, man-made bare 
                         land, natural bare land, and water. The land-cover change was 
                         examined using the post-classification comparison approach based 
                         on different stages of dam construction, and was further examined 
                         along the upstream and downstream river buffer. The results 
                         indicate that overall classification accuracies of 89.7% and 92.3% 
                         were obtained for the 2011 and 2015 land-cover classification 
                         results, respectively. Primary forest decreased continuously from 
                         47.8% in 2006 to 35.3% in 2017. Different stages of dam 
                         construction had various impacts, that is, before dam 
                         construction, deforestation and agropasture expansion were the 
                         major land-cover change categories; during dam construction, the 
                         increased area of man-made bare lands, the canal construction 
                         zone, and the increased area of natural bare lands downstream were 
                         obvious, in addition to deforestation and agropasture dynamics; 
                         when dam construction was complete, water bodies increased 
                         considerably upstream and decreased downstream. These big changes 
                         in water bodies may have long-term impacts on ecosystem functions 
                         and environments. This research provides new insights on the 
                         impacts of dam construction on land-cover changes, which is 
                         valuable for making better decisions about water and land 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.05.019",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.05.019",
                 issn = "0143-6228",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "jiang_examining.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jul. 2021"