author = "Loureiro, Geilson and Panades, W. F. and Silva, A.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Instituto 
                         Federal de Educa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, Ci{\^e}ncia e Tecnologia de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                title = "Lessons learned in 20 years of application of Systems Concurrent 
                         Engineering to space products",
              journal = "Acta Astronautica",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "151",
                pages = "44--52",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "Systems engineering, Concurrent engineering, Integrated product 
                         development, Space products.",
             abstract = "This paper aims to present the lessons learned in 20 years of 
                         application of the SCE (Systems Concurrent Engineering) approach 
                         that evolved over the last 20 years being applied to the 
                         development of more than 200 complex system solutions. SCE is an 
                         approach to the integrated development of complex systems that 
                         applies the systems engineering process, simultaneously, to the 
                         product elements of a system solution as well as for the service 
                         elements of the system solution, recursively, at every layer of 
                         the system solution breakdown structure. The approach was born as 
                         the application of the requirements, functional and physical 
                         analysis processes to the simultaneous development of a product, 
                         its life cycle processes and their performing organizations, at 
                         every layer of the product breakdown structure. The continuous 
                         application of the approach up to 2010, showed the need to include 
                         a stakeholder analysis step, to acknowledge that the solution was 
                         comprised of product and organization elements (processes were, in 
                         fact, the functions of products and organizations), that a mission 
                         layer should be added at the top of the product breakdown 
                         structure and that the notion of circumstances should be added to 
                         the traditional notion of scenarios. With the increasing use of 
                         the approach for system of systems conception and development such 
                         as those involving multi-spacecraft solutions, the mission layer 
                         needed to be extended to include other life cycle processes 
                         (besides the operations processes) concept of service and system 
                         service architecture. This requires the development of a system 
                         solution breakdown structure that will guide the development of 
                         the overall solution. For multi-spacecraft solutions, for example, 
                         it is necessary to conceive and architect testing, launching and 
                         decommissioning services as early as operations. Also, going into 
                         more detail in the approach, modes can be derived from 
                         circumstances, interface states and internal states of the system 
                         and not only from circumstances, as initially established in the 
                         approach. These lessons to be presented were learned during the 
                         development of: 1) the Brazilian Strategic Program for Space 
                         Systems (PESE) and; 2) the TIM Project (Telematics International 
                         Mission), a satellite formation with contributions from many 
                         regions in the world.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.05.042",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.05.042",
                 issn = "0094-5765",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "loureiro_lessons.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"