author = "Santana, Raoni A. and Dias J{\'u}nior, Cl{\'e}o Q. and Silva, 
                         J{\'u}lio T{\'o}ta da and Fuentes, Jose D. and Vale, Roseilon 
                         Souza do and Alves, Eliane Gomes and Santos, Rosa Maria N. dos and 
                         Manzi, Antonio Ocimar",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do Oeste do Par{\'a} (UFOPA)} and Instituto 
                         Federal de Educa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, Ci{\^e}ncia e Tecnologia and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Oeste do Par{\'a} (UFOPA)} and 
                         {Pennsylvania State University} and {Universidade Federal do Oeste 
                         do Par{\'a} (UFOPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas 
                         (UEA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Air turbulence characteristics at multiple sites in and above the 
                         Amazon rainforest canopy",
              journal = "Agricultural and Forest Meteorology",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "260/261",
                pages = "41--54",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "Roughness sublayer, Amazon forest, Turbulent profiles, TKE 
                         dissipation rate, Turbulent regimes.",
             abstract = "Atmospheric turbulence characteristics within and above rain 
                         forest canopies are investigated at several sites located in the 
                         Amazon region of Brazil. Turbulence data provided by bi- and 
                         three-dimensional sonic anemometers, which were deployed at 
                         heights ranging from near the forest floor to about 80\ m, 
                         are analyzed to describe the principal features of atmospheric 
                         turbulence, sensible heat flux (H), and components of the 
                         turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation. The analyses 
                         focused on weak (WW) and strong (SW) wind conditions to achieve 
                         the research objectives of evaluating the turbulence structure 
                         above and below the rain forest canopy and estimating the degree 
                         of coupling between air layers above the forest and deep in the 
                         canopy. Turbulence statistical moments show that atmospheric 
                         eddies, generated above the canopy, hardly penetrate the region 
                         below 0.5h (h is the canopy height). Forest-atmosphere exchanges 
                         of heat differ depending on the observed wind regimes. Sensible 
                         heat fluxes decrease with canopy depth for SW conditions and are 
                         approximately constant with the height for WW above the canopy. 
                         Sensible heat flux profiles reveal a transition layer (around 
                         0.6h) which sometimes exchanges heat with the upper and sometimes 
                         with the lower forest canopy, depending on time of day and weather 
                         conditions. TKE balance results show that during the daytime 
                         period in SW conditions the shear production is at least an order 
                         of magnitude greater than the buoyancy above the forest canopy. 
                         This turbulence, however, is practically all dissipated in the 
                         region above 0.5h. Thus, the air layer from the soil surface to 
                         0.5h is largely decoupled from the upper part of the forest 
                         canopy. This feature of having the bottom of the canopy mostly 
                         decoupled from the air aloft in the dense and tall rain forest can 
                         exert control on the residence times and turbulent transport of 
                         plant-emitted gases out of the forest canopy.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.05.027",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.05.027",
                 issn = "0168-1923",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "santana_air.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jul. 2021"