author = "Ogle, Stephen M. and Domke, Grant and Kurz, Werner A. and Rocha, 
                         Marcelo T. and Huffman, Ted and Swan, Amy and Smith, James E. and 
                         Woodall, Christopher and Krug, Thelma",
          affiliation = "{Colorado State University} and {USDA Forest Service} and 
                         {Canadian Forest Service} and {F{\'a}brica {\'E}thica Brasil} 
                         and {Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada} and {Colorado State 
                         University} and {USDA Forest Service} and {} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas 
                         emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention 
                         on climate change",
              journal = "Carbon Balance and Management",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "13",
               number = "1",
                pages = "e9",
                month = "Dec.",
             keywords = "Greenhouse gas emissions inventory, Carbon inventory, Managed land 
                         proxy, Land use, Agriculture, Forestry.",
             abstract = "Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on 
                         carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and 
                         removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between 
                         anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. 
                         To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate 
                         Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are 
                         contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. 
                         Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to 
                         the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on 
                         this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land 
                         use are expected to focus on managed lands. Our objective was to 
                         review the use of the managed land proxy, and summarize the 
                         criteria that governments have applied to classify land as managed 
                         and unmanaged. We found that the large majority of governments are 
                         not reporting on their application of the managed land proxy. 
                         Among the governments that do provide information, most have 
                         assigned all area in specifc land uses as managed, while 
                         designating all remaining lands as unmanaged. This designation as 
                         managed land is intuitive for croplands and settlements, which 
                         would not exist without management interventions, but a portion of 
                         forest land, grassland, and wetlands may not be managed in a 
                         country. Consequently, Brazil, Canada and the United States have 
                         taken the concept further and delineated managed and unmanaged 
                         forest land, grassland and wetlands, using additional criteria 
                         such as functional use of the land and accessibility of the land 
                         to anthropogenic activity. The managed land proxy is imperfect 
                         because reported emissions from any area can include 
                         non-anthropogenic sources, such as natural disturbances. However, 
                         the managed land proxy does make reporting of GHG emissions and 
                         removals from land use more tractable and comparable by excluding 
                         fuxes from areas that are not directly infuenced by anthropogenic 
                         activity. Moreover, application of the managed land proxy can be 
                         improved by incorporating additional criteria that allow for 
                         further discrimination between managed and unmanaged land.",
                  doi = "10.1186/s13021-018-0095-3",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13021-018-0095-3",
                 issn = "1750-0680",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ogle_delineating.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "13 jun. 2021"