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@PhDThesis{Rodrigues:2018:EsPrIn,
               author = "Rodrigues, Daniela Carneiro",
                title = "Estudo dos processos de intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o superf{\'{\i}}cie 
                         terrestre-atmosfera com o modelo ETA em alta 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2018",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "28-08-2018",
             keywords = "intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o solo-vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o-atmosfera, mapas 
                         de superf{\'{\i}}cie, alta resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o expl{\'{\i}}cita, 
                         soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction, surface maps, 
                         high-resolution, explicit precipitation.",
             abstract = "O sistema solo-vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o-atmosfera interage 
                         atrav{\'e}s de um conjunto de processos f{\'{\i}}sicos que 
                         acoplam os ciclos de energia e {\'a}gua. A ocorr{\^e}ncia de 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'u}mida profunda, na aus{\^e}ncia ou sob 
                         fraca for{\c{c}}ante de escala sin{\'o}tica, geralmente 
                         est{\'a} relacionada com o estado da superf{\'{\i}}cie, em 
                         especial com o particionamento dos fluxos turbulentos de calor e 
                         umidade. As intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre a superf{\'{\i}}cie 
                         terrestre e a atmosfera t{\^e}m sido investigadas nas 
                         {\'u}ltimas d{\'e}cadas e, apesar de progressos nos {\'u}ltimos 
                         anos, continuam sendo processos mal compreendidos e uma grande 
                         fonte de incertezas em modelos num{\'e}ricos. Diante disso, o 
                         principal objetivo desta pesquisa foi buscar compreender o efeito 
                         das intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es do sistema 
                         solo-vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o-atmosfera nas simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         curto prazo da precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o convectiva no Sudeste do 
                         Brasil, utilizando o modelo Eta em alt{\'{\i}}ssima 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial (1 km). Testes de sensibilidade 
                         foram realizados com diferentes mapas de superf{\'{\i}}cie, 
                         variando o conte{\'u}do de umidade inicial do solo, variando a 
                         intensidade do acoplamento superf{\'{\i}}cie-atmosfera e 
                         tamb{\'e}m atrav{\'e}s de ajustes no esquema de 
                         produ{\c{c}}{\~a}o de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o. O caso de 14 de 
                         fevereiro de 2013 foi escolhido para an{\'a}lises mais detalhadas 
                         e nove casos de chuvas intensas sob fraca for{\c{c}}ante de 
                         grande escala foram utilizados nas avalia{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         estat{\'{\i}}sticas. Os resultados indicam que a 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o das vari{\'a}veis de superf{\'{\i}}cie 
                         melhora com o aumento da resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o horizontal do 
                         modelo. No geral, a atualiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos mapas de textura 
                         do solo e de uso e cobertura da terra em alta 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial trouxeram melhorias para as 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es das vari{\'a}veis de superf{\'{\i}}cie 
                         do modelo. O novo mapa de textura do solo (STATSGO/FAO) aumentou a 
                         umidade dispon{\'{\i}}vel no solo, o fluxo de calor latente e 
                         diminuiu o fluxo de calor sens{\'{\i}}vel e a temperatura da 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie simulada, reduzindo o vi{\'e}s do experimento 
                         controle que superestimou os fluxos de calor sens{\'{\i}}vel e 
                         subestimou os fluxos de calor latente. A atualiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         do mapa de uso e cobertura da terra (IBGE, 2014) provocou uma 
                         redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o nos fluxos de calor latente e um aumento nos 
                         fluxos de calor sens{\'{\i}}vel e na temperatura da 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie nas {\'a}reas que indicaram expans{\~a}o da 
                         {\'a}rea urbana em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o ao mapa inicial. Nas 
                         {\'a}reas onde a cobertura vegetal cultivo substituiu a savana, 
                         houve um aumento (diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o) no fluxo de calor 
                         latente (calor sens{\'{\i}}vel). A inclus{\~a}o do uso da terra 
                         de eucalipto no mapa de vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o resultou na 
                         redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o (aumento) dos fluxos de calor latente 
                         (sens{\'{\i}}vel) em cerca de 50 W/m2 e levou a um aumento na 
                         temperatura da superf{\'{\i}}cie de at{\'e} 2C nas {\'a}reas 
                         de plantio de eucalipto. Diferentes conte{\'u}dos de umidade 
                         inicial do solo levam a distintos padr{\~o}es diurnos de 
                         temperatura potencial e umidade relativa simuladas na baixa 
                         atmosfera. Os testes com diferentes intensidades do acoplamento 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie-atmosfera mostraram que as 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es dos fluxos superficiais s{\~a}o 
                         sens{\'{\i}}veis ao tratamento da camada superficial, 
                         especialmente o c{\'a}lculo do comprimento da rugosidade para 
                         calor/umidade. A ado{\c{c}}{\~a}o do coeficiente de acoplamento 
                         din{\^a}mico mostrou-se potencialmente capaz de melhorar a 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o das vari{\'a}veis de superf{\'{\i}}cie e 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricas, bem como modificar o padr{\~a}o espacial da 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Os testes no esquema de 
                         microf{\'{\i}}sica de nuvens mostraram que a 
                         varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o nos par{\^a}metros relativos {\`a} 
                         velocidade terminal do cristal de gelo e na umidade relativa 
                         cr{\'{\i}}tica para condensa{\c{c}}{\~a}o impacta na 
                         quantidade de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o simulada, mas n{\~a}o 
                         altera o padr{\~a}o espacial e/ou temporal. O uso do esquema de 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o para tratar a mistura turbulenta da 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o alterou tanto a quantidade quanto a 
                         localiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o da precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, mostrando-se 
                         um par{\^a}metro potencial de ajuste do modelo na escala de 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o expl{\'{\i}}cita. O resultado inovador 
                         desta tese {\'e} o ganho na compreens{\~a}o sobre as 
                         sensibilidades das simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es em alt{\'{\i}}ssima 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do modelo x Eta {\`a}s 
                         intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es solo-vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o-atmosfera. 
                         {\'E} um resultado considerado importante, pois orienta sobre a 
                         dire{\c{c}}{\~a}o das mudan{\c{c}}as a tomar no modelo para 
                         obter previs{\~o}es de melhor qualidade. ABSTRACT: The 
                         soil-vegetation-atmosphere system interacts through a set of 
                         physical processes that couple the cycles of energy and water. The 
                         occurrence of deep humid convection, in the absence or under weak 
                         forcing of the synoptic scale, is usually related to the surface 
                         state, especially with the partitioning of the turbulent flows of 
                         heat and humidity. The interactions between the land surface and 
                         the atmosphere have been investigated in recent decades and, 
                         despite progress in recent years, are still poorly understood 
                         processes and a major source of uncertainties in numerical models. 
                         Therefore, the main objective of this research was to understand 
                         the effect of soilvegetation- atmosphere interactions on 
                         short-term simulations of convective precipitation in Southeastern 
                         Brazil, using the Eta model in very high spatial resolution (1 
                         km). Sensitivity tests were performed with different surface maps, 
                         varying the initial moisture content of the soil, varying the 
                         intensity of the surfaceatmosphere coupling and also through 
                         adjustments in the precipitation production scheme. The case of 
                         February 14, 2013 was chosen for more detailed analyzes and nine 
                         cases of heavy rains under weak large-scale forcing were used in 
                         the statistical evaluations. The results indicate that the 
                         simulation of the surface variables improves with the increase of 
                         the horizontal resolution of the model. In general, the updating 
                         of soil texture maps and land use and coverage in high spatial 
                         resolution have brought improvements to the simulations of the 
                         model surface variables. The new soil texture map (STATSGO/FAO) 
                         increased the available soil moisture, latent heat flux and 
                         decreased the sensible heat flux and the simulated surface 
                         temperature, reducing the bias of the control experiment that 
                         overestimated the heat fluxes and underestimated latent heat 
                         fluxes. The updating of the land use and land cover map (IBGE, 
                         2014) caused a reduction in latent heat fluxes and an increase in 
                         sensible heat fluxes and surface temperature in the areas that 
                         indicated urban area expansion in relation to the initial map. In 
                         the areas where the vegetation cover replaces the savanna, there 
                         was an increase (decrease) in the latent heat flux (sensible 
                         heat). The inclusion of eucalyptus land use in the vegetation map 
                         resulted in the reduction (increase) of latent (sensitive) heat 
                         fluxes by about 50 W/m2 and led to an increase in surface 
                         temperature of up to 2C in the areas of Eucalyptus plantation. 
                         Different initial moisture contents of the soil lead to different 
                         diurnal patterns of potential temperature and relative humidity 
                         simulated in the lower atmosphere. Tests with different 
                         intensities of surface-toatmosphere coupling showed that surface 
                         flux simulations are sensitive to surface layer treatment, 
                         especially calculating the roughness length for heat/moisture. The 
                         adoption of the dynamic coupling coefficient was potentially able 
                         to improve the simulation of the surface and atmospheric 
                         variables, as well as to modify the spatial pattern of the 
                         precipitation. The tests in the cloud microphysics scheme showed 
                         that the variation in the parameters relative to the ice crystal 
                         terminal velocity and the critical humidity for condensation 
                         impacts the amount of simulated precipitation, but does not alter 
                         the spatial and/or temporal pattern. The use of the convection 
                         scheme to treat the turbulent convection mixture altered both the 
                         amount and the location of the precipitation, showing a potential 
                         parameter of model fit in the explicit convection xii scale. The 
                         innovative result of this thesis is the gain in the understanding 
                         of the sensitivities of the high resolution simulations of the Eta 
                         model to the soil-vegetationatmosphere interactions. It is a 
                         result considered important, because it guides the direction of 
                         the changes to be made in the model to obtain forecasts of better 
                         quality.",
            committee = "Cavalcanti, Iracema Fonseca de Albuquerque (presidente) and Chan, 
                         Chou Sin (orientadora) and Tomasella, Javier and Andr{\'e}s 
                         Rodriguez, Daniel and Correia, Francis Wagner Silva",
         englishtitle = "Study of interaction processes land surface-atmosphere with the 
                         ETA model at high resolution",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "216",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3RHJH95",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34R/3RHJH95",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"
}


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