author = "Chian, Abraham Chian Long and Abalde, Jos{\'e} Ricardo and 
                         Miranda, Rodrigo A. and Borotto, Felix A. and Hysell, David L. and 
                         Rempel, Erico Luiz and Ruffolo, David",
          affiliation = "{University of Adelaide} and {Instituto Tecnologico de 
                         Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and {Universidade de Bras{\'{\i}}lia 
                         (UnB)} and {Universidad de Concepci{\'o}n} and {Cornell 
                         University} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Mahidol University}",
                title = "Multi-spectral optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of 
                         ionospheric intermittent turbulence",
              journal = "Scientific Reports",
                 year = "2018",
               volume = "8",
                pages = "e10568",
                month = "July",
             abstract = "Equatorial plasma depletions have significant impact on radio wave 
                         propagation in the upper atmosphere, causing rapid fluctuations in 
                         the power of radio signals used in telecommunication and GPS 
                         navigation, thus playing a crucial role in space weather impacts. 
                         Complex structuring and self-organization of equatorial plasma 
                         depletions involving bifurcation, connection, disconnection and 
                         reconnection are the signatures of nonlinear evolution of 
                         interchange instability and secondary instabilities, responsible 
                         for the generation of coherent structures and turbulence in the 
                         ionosphere. The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to report 
                         the first optical imaging of reconnection of equatorial plasma 
                         depletions in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly, (2) to 
                         investigate the optical imaging of equatorial ionospheric 
                         intermittent turbulence, and (3) to compare nonlinear 
                         characteristics of optical imaging of equatorial plasma depletions 
                         for two different altitudes at same times. We show that the degree 
                         of spatiotemporal complexity of ionospheric intermittent 
                         turbulence can be quantified by nonlinear studies of optical 
                         images, confirming the duality of amplitude-phase synchronization 
                         in multiscale interactions. By decomposing the analyses into 
                         North-South and East-West directions we show that the degree of 
                         non-Gaussianity, intermittency and multifractality is stronger in 
                         the North-South direction, confirming the anisotropic nature of 
                         the interchange instability. In particular, by using simultaneous 
                         observation of multi-spectral all-sky emissions from two different 
                         heights we show that the degree of non-Gaussianity and 
                         intermittency in the bottomside F-region ionosphere is stronger 
                         than the peak F-region ionosphere. Our results are confirmed by 
                         two sets of observations on the nights of 28 September 2002 and 9 
                         November 2002.",
                  doi = "10.1038/s41598-018-28780-5",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28780-5",
                 issn = "2045-2322",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "chian_multi.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"